Barcodes (also known as bar codes) - this is a graphical representation of numbers, characters and letters with dark and light boxes. Their main task is to read information through a code reader.
Advantages of bar codes:
- enable automatic loading of information
- automatic identification of various types of products in storage, transport and commodity science
- accuracy of data recording
- positive impact on capital and inventory management
- speed of entering, reading and processing data
- improve documentation and billing
- streamlines the erase functions
- more effective transaction execution
- accelerated customer service
Types of barcodes
Division of codes by dimensionality:
- One-dimensional bar codes (linear, 1D) - information is contained on one line, usually in the form of bars.
- Two-dimensional two bar codes - information stored in several lines, one below the other.
- Barcodes Two-dimensional matrix - the information is written on the surface of the package in a form other than lines.
- Complex barcodes - a mix of one-dimensional and two-dimensional codes.
- Three-dimensional barcodes - extruded one-dimensional codes. Their depth is used to read them.
Breakdown by stroke width:
- Codes with one stroke width
- Codes with two line widths
- Codes with many strokes widths (modular)
Breakdown by type of coded symbols:
- Numeric - only digits in the decimal system are coded
- Alphanumeric - the digits and other characters of the ASCII code are encoded, sometimes also characters appearing in some alphabets
Breakdown by code continuity (not applicable to matrix codes):
- Continuous codes - there are no gaps between coded characters
- Discrete codes - there are spaces between coded characters
Breakdown by number of coded characters:
- Codes with a strictly defined number of coded characters (fixed length)
- Codes with a different number of coded characters (variable length)
Breakdown according to the adopted method of verification of read data:
- Self-check codes - some error checking procedures are implemented in the code construction
- Codes with a control character (e.g. with a check digit)
- Self-check codes that contain an additional check mark
Country or region barcodes
|000-139 USA & Canada||20-29 Goods weighed in supermarkets||300-379 France|
|383 Slovenia||380 Bulgaria||385 Croatia|
|387 Bosnia-Herzegovina||40-44 Germany||45 Japan (also 49)|
|46 Russian Federation||470 Kyrgyzstan||474 Estonia|
|475 Latvia||476 Azerbaijan||477 Lithuania|
|478 Uzbekistan||479 Sri Lanka||480 Philippines|
|481 Belarus||482 Ukraine||484 Moldova|
|485 Armenia||486 Georgia||487 Kazakhstan|
|489 Hong Kong||49 Japan (JAN-13)||50 Great Britain|
|520 Greece||528 Lebanon||529 Cyprus|
|531 Macedonia||535 Malta||539 Ireland|
|54 Belgium & Luxembourg||560 Portugal||569 Iceland|
|57 Denmark||590 Poland||594 Romania|
|599 Hungary||600 & 601 South Africa||608 Bahrain|
|609 Mauritius||611 Morocco||613 Algeria|
|621 Syria||622 Egypt||624 Libya|
|625 Jordan||626 Iran||627 Kuwait|
|628 Saudi Arabia||64 Finland||690-692 China|
|70 Norway||729 Israel||73 Sweden|
|740 Guatemala||741 El Salvador||742 Honduras|
|743 Nicaragua||744 Costa Rica||745 Panama|
|746 Dominican Republic||750 Mexico||759 Venezuela|
|76 Switzerland||770 Colombia||773 Uruguay|
|775 Peru||777 Bolivia||779 Argentina|
|780 Chile||784 Paraguay||786 Ecuador|
|789-790 Brazil||80 - 83 Italy||84 Spain|
|850 Kuba||858 Slovakia||859 Czech Republic|
|860 Yugoslavia||867 North Korea||867 North Korea|
|869 Turkey||87 The Netherlands||880 South Korea|
|885 Thailand||888 Singapore||890 India|
|893 Vietnam||899 Indonesia||90 & 91 Austria|
|94 New Zealand||950 EAN - IDA||955 Malaysia|
|958 Macao||619 Tunisia||978 International Standard Book Numbering (ISBN)|
|979 International Standard Music Number (ISMN)||980 Refund receipts||981 & 982 Common Currency Coupons|
|977 International Standard Serial Number for Periodicals (ISSN)||99 Coupons||-|
Examples of Barcode
- UPC Barcode: This type of barcode is the most common type of barcode used for consumer products. It is a 12-digit numerical code that can be found on almost any product, from food to electronics. This type of barcode is used to identify the item and to help keep track of inventory.
- QR Code: A QR Code is a two-dimensional barcode that can store various types of data, including text, website URLs, and contact information. It is commonly used to quickly and easily transfer information between two devices, such as a smartphone and a computer.
- ISBN Barcode: An ISBN barcode is used to identify books and other publications. It is a 13-digit numerical code that is printed on the back cover of a book, and is used to track books in libraries and bookstores.
Advantages of Barcode
Barcodes have many advantages, including:
- Increased accuracy and speed of data entry. Barcodes can be quickly and accurately scanned by a code reader. This ensures that data entry is more accurate and efficient compared to manual data entry.
- Cost savings. Barcodes are very cost efficient, as they require minimal investment in hardware, and they save time and labour costs associated with manual data entry.
- Increased efficiency. Barcodes allow for quick and easy tracking of inventory, and can be used to track shipments and other items in transit.
- Improved security. Barcodes can be used to prevent fraud and counterfeit items, as each code is unique and can be tracked.
Limitations of Barcode
Barcodes have many limitations which make them less than ideal for some applications. The following are some of the main limitations of barcodes:
- Barcodes are limited in size due to the number of characters or data that can be encoded in a single barcode. This limits their application to items that are small enough to fit the size of the barcode.
- Barcodes are only able to store a limited amount of information. They are not suitable for storing large amounts of data such as images, video, or audio.
- Barcodes are prone to errors, such as incorrect scanning or misreading of the code. This can lead to inaccurate data being recorded.
- Barcodes can be easily damaged or distorted, making them difficult to read and leading to inaccurate data being collected.
- Barcodes are limited to linear formats, which limits the type of information that can be encoded.
Barcodes are not the only approach to read information through a code reader. Other approaches include:
- RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) which uses radio waves to transmit information from a tag attached to a product to a reader device. This technology is commonly used in the retail industry for tracking inventory, managing access control, and more.
- Optical Character Recognition (OCR) which uses a camera to take a picture of text and then uses software to recognize the text. This technology can be used to quickly scan documents and quickly extract data from them.
- QR Codes (Quick Response Codes) which are two-dimensional barcodes that can store more data than traditional barcodes. QR codes are used in many applications such as product tracking, customer loyalty programs, payment systems, and more.
- NFC (Near Field Communication) which uses two devices that are in close proximity to each other to exchange information. This technology is commonly used in mobile payments and contactless cards.
In summary, there are a variety of approaches for reading information through a code reader. Each approach has its own benefits and drawbacks and is suitable for different applications.
- Daw-Tung Lin, Chin-Lin Lin, (2013). AUTOMATIC LOCATION FOR MULTI-SYMBOLOGY AND MULTIPLE 1D AND 2D BARCODES. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 6, s. 664-666.
- Erol Ozcelik, Cengiz Acarturk, (2011). Reducing the Spatial Distance between Printed and Online Information Sources by means of Mobile Technology Enhances Learning: Using 2D Barcodes. Accepted Manuscript, s. 10-15.
- Jun-Chou Chuang, Yu-Chen Hu, Hsien-Ju Ko, (2018). A Novel Secret Sharing Technique Using QR Code. International Journal of Image Processing, no.4, s. 469-470.
- Melinda Katona and Laszl ´ o G. Ny ´ ul, (2012). A novel method for accurate and efficient barcode detection with morphological operations. IEEE, s. 1-3.
Author: Natalia Wróblewska