Capability mapping

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Capability mapping
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Capability mapping answers question how business is reaching its capabilities. Capabilities are happening through processes so that capability mapping also describes processes, relations between them and their functions. Going from top level, it is analysis about components, services, systems and resources. Zhu P. defines seven levels of business capabilities[1]:

  1. Scope,
  2. Alignment,
  3. Design,
  4. Execution,
  5. Governance,
  6. Power people,
  7. KPIs and measurements,

5W1H questions in capability mapping

Below questions refers to six different aspects of mapping capability[2]:

  1. Why refers to the rule,
  2. What refers to the product,
  3. Where refers to the container,
  4. Who refers to the role,
  5. When refers to the event,
  6. How refers to the function.

Capability mapping process

Four main objectives of capability mapping process are: entities, relationships, attributes and rules. General steps are[3]:

  • Collection of data,
  • Defining functions of objects,
  • Establishing relationships between objects,
  • Setting rules, principles and guidelines.

Capability mapping process to reach properly working system is top-down approach. It is covered within five main "mappings"[4]:

  1. Setting the mission ,
  2. Mapping capabilities to operational activities,
  3. Mapping operational activities to system functions,
  4. Mapping system functions to systems,
  5. Last step, after mapping system function to systems, is mapping as well capabilities to system.

Capability gap analysis

When there are gaps in the system, they might identified with three below approaches[5]:

  1. There is no capability, for example system functions does not support operational activity,
  2. Current capability should be reviewed, for example functionality is partly provided,
  3. Lack of proficiency in current capability, for example overlap of functions in the system understood as unnecessary duplication.

Organisational capability development

Capability mapping might be also related to more elements of organisational structure. It is the middle step between market analysis plus its results and principles, culture, values, routines, processes, systems, resources of the company[6].

Author: Ewelina Gał


  1. Zhu P. (2015)
  2. Yang K., Ge B. Zhao Q., Jiang J. (2013) p. 89-90
  3. Yang K., Ge B. Zhao Q., Jiang J. (2013), p. 90
  4. Yang K., Ge B. Zhao Q., Jiang J. (2013) p. 92-93
  5. Yang K., Ge B. Zhao Q., Jiang J. (2013) p. 94
  6. Gusberti T. D. H., Viegas C., Echeveste M. E. S. (2013), p. 134-136