Business process mapping

From CEOpedia | Management online

Business process mapping is used to carry out transformations in the operation of the economic system in the following situations:

Process definition in process mapping

The process definition should include:

  • beginning and end of the process,
  • the structure of the process,
  • entry and exit,
  • suppliers and customers,
  • the owner of the process,
  • assessment criteria,
  • impact on the result of the entire organization,
  • meters,
  • measurement and assessment tools,
  • criteria and control methods, including feedback,
  • resources and deviations,
  • documentation of the process and its course.

The desired result is achieved with greater efficiency when activities and related resources are managed as a process. This is the essence of the process approach - one of the eight principles of quality management. The quality management system can be divided into a series of processes interrelated with each other. The process approach aims to create the processes occurring in the organization and to shape them so that their efficiency and effectiveness are as high as possible.

To identify the process, you should specify: the target, the entrance, the exit, the indicator (meter) and the owner. The process consists of links between internal clients, however, the entry and exit of processes may be related to external clients.

Entrances and exits can be tangible and intangible. The most common connections between processes (entries and exits) can include: raw materials, semi-finished products, end products, energy, information and financial resources. In fact, organizations, by creating a map of processes, divide processes in different ways, they also call them differently.

Types of processes on the process map

Most often the processes occurring in the organization are divided into:

  • management processes,
  • main processes,
  • auxiliary processes.

The main processes in a typical production enterprise usually include:

  • shopping,
  • projects,
  • production,
  • sale.

The auxiliary processes can be:

  • maintenance,
  • internal transport,
  • supervision over control and measurement equipment.

Management processes include:

  • planning,
  • personnel Management,
  • system review whether
  • internal audits.

Creating a process map

The process map in general identifies processes and more important subprocesses. A subprocess is a separate part of the process, which due to its nature and its separateness from other parts, can be treated as a separate, smaller process (e.g. in the recruitment process of a large company, the subprocess of employee adaptation can be separated). There is no single standard for creating a map. Most often it shows information or material flows between processes.

Note: Some authors mistakenly write about the process map (one). Such a drawing consists not of processes but of tasks. It is therefore a block diagram, not a map of processes.

Rules for creating a process map

The following rules should be used when preparing a process map:

  • we draw processes from left to right,
  • each process / activity diagram should start and end with the beginning / end symbol,
  • all symbols are connected by arrows,
  • the direction of the arrows must be compatible with the flow of the process,
  • all lines describing the process must be attached to symbols,
  • avoid situations where the scheme / activity is divided into several pages,
  • the scheme must be simple (detail should be avoided),
  • the process boundaries should be visible,
  • the central (most important) place should be visible in the diagram.

In addition, it is necessary to determine the level of detail of the process map, during which we must consider for what purpose we create a map. When we want to present the common principles of the process, the map will contain fewer details, but in the case of "implementing new products for production or when we are looking for the cause of the problem in the process" we need to consider a more extensive map structure. Thanks to this, we can get to know places where money and time are used ineffectively and eliminate them in the future. The more detailed and complex the processes, the number of people preparing the process map should be greater.

Process mapping

The course of process mapping consists of the following stages:

Stage I - identification of processes for which the methods are used:

  • top-down method, where the general activity of the organization is defined in the first place along with its goals, and then the * elements are specified in more detail,
  • bottom-up method, more time-consuming, but more precise, which involves the analysis of activities performed in the organization * and the formulation of running processes based on them.

Stage II - includes:

  • division of processes into executive (main) and support (auxiliary),
  • distinction of key processes from the point of view of achieving business goals,
  • reflection of the course of processes within individual departments.

The following procedure is usually used for process mapping:

  • identifying the main participants of the process using a technique known as relationship mapping,
  • creating a detailed process map, presenting all the activities that make up the process.

Relationship mapping is used to reduce functional and hierarchical barriers, improve cooperation between the various links in the sender-recipient relationship, as well as to determine functional persons who are to participate in the further improvement of the analyzed processes.

Examples of Business process mapping

  1. Process Improvement: Business process mapping is used to analyze existing processes and identify opportunities for improvement. It is often used to identify areas where processes could be more efficient or streamlined. This helps businesses cut costs and increase efficiency.
  2. Strategic Planning: Business process mapping can be used to develop an overall strategy for a business. By mapping out existing processes and analyzing them for future potential, businesses can develop a strategic plan for the future.
  3. Change Management: Process mapping can be used to identify areas of change that need to be implemented in order to stay competitive in the market. By mapping out the existing processes and analyzing them for potential changes, businesses can identify and make the necessary adjustments to stay competitive.
  4. Risk Management: Business process mapping allows businesses to identify potential risks in their processes. By mapping out their processes, they can identify areas of risk and develop strategies to manage and mitigate those risks.
  5. Data Analysis: Business process mapping can be used to analyze large amounts of data. By mapping out the processes and analyzing the data, businesses can identify trends and make decisions based on the data.

Advantages of Business process mapping

Business process mapping is a useful tool for organizations to understand, analyze, and improve their business processes. It helps to identify how processes can be improved and can be used to identify inefficiencies, eliminate redundant processes and create a more efficient workflow. Here are some of the advantages of business process mapping:

  • Increased Efficiency: By mapping out your business processes, you can identify areas that could be streamlined or automated to increase efficiency. This can help to save time, money and resources.
  • Improved Communication: Business process mapping helps to create a common language that can be used to communicate more clearly between departments. This can help to create a unified and streamlined approach to tasks.
  • Identify Problems: Business process mapping can help to identify areas where processes can be improved or potential problems that could occur. This helps to ensure that processes are running smoothly and are not likely to cause any disruption.
  • Increased Visibility: By having a clear visual representation of your business processes, it is easier to track progress and identify any potential issues. This helps to keep everyone on the same page and make it easier to ensure that everything is running as it should.
  • Improved Quality: Business process mapping can help to identify areas where the quality of work could be improved. This helps to make sure that products and services are of the highest quality and that customers are satisfied with the end result.

Limitations of Business process mapping

Business process mapping is a powerful tool used to document, analyze and improve operational processes, but there are several limitations to its effectiveness. These limitations include:

  • A lack of detailed information: Business process mapping is often limited by a lack of detailed information. It is difficult to accurately map a process when there are missing details or if the process is complex and involves multiple steps.
  • Difficulty understanding and interpreting the data: Business process maps can be difficult to interpret and understand, especially if the process is complex. This can lead to delays in implementing changes.
  • Cost: Business process mapping can be expensive due to the resources required to create and maintain the maps.
  • Inability to capture all variables: Business process mapping may not be able to capture all of the variables that could affect the process. This can lead to a lack of accuracy in the mapping and the results of the mapping.
  • Time-consuming: Business process mapping can be time-consuming, especially for larger and more complex processes. This can lead to delays in implementation and missed opportunities.

Other approaches related to Business process mapping

Business process mapping is a key activity in the ongoing development of a business or organization, and can be used in a variety of situations to carry out transformations in the operation of the economic system. Other important approaches related to business process mapping include:

  • Business Process Reengineering (BPR): This approach is used to analyze and redesign existing business processes in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency.
  • Lean Six Sigma: This approach combines Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma to reduce waste and improve customer satisfaction.
  • Business Process Automation: This approach uses technology to automate business processes and streamline operations.
  • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP): This approach uses software to manage business resources and processes across multiple departments.

In summary, other important approaches related to business process mapping include Business Process Reengineering, Lean Six Sigma, Business Process Automation, and Enterprise Resource Planning. All of these approaches can be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization's operations.

Business process mappingrecommended articles
Managerial controllingBusiness process modelingControllingActivity chartTypes of control systemBusiness process reengineeringProcess performanceInternal benchmarkingProcess approach