Internal training (on the job training techniques) - this is a type of training that mainly concerns newly hired employees or transferred to a position with a completely different specifics than the previous one. The main goal is to quickly and effectively implement the employee to perform new tasks within the infrastructure of a given workplace. It can be an implementation to use specific procedures, equipment, system, data or machines and devices, as well as familiarization with the new work environment and interpersonal relations. Through appropriate training, the efficiency of tasks performed at the workplace increases. Employees are more involved, have greater mobilization to work and are not afraid that they will make mistakes while performing new tasks.
There are different types of internal training techniques:
- coaching - this is a technique based on expanding your skills and knowledge as well as improving performance while you work. In coaching, there is a special relationship between the coach and the trainer. It is important for the coach to realize that his mission is to help the trainees in learning. The participants of the training should also have motivation to learn and constantly cooperate with the area. The coach informs the trainers on a regular basis what to learn and provides feedback on the progress in expanding knowledge and skills. Coaching is organized based on the trainer's questions to the trainer. Thanks to this, the trainer stimulates his thinking and he has to solve the problem and want to make changes. This technique helps in discovering the potential of training participants. Coaching should take place in an atmosphere of mutual respect and approval for the value of the trainee.
- mentoring - the knowledge is acquired over a period of time under the guidance of a mentor. The trainer is modeled on the mentor, realizes real or fictitious tasks assigned by the mentor, participates in the trainings he has designated. The mentor organizes summary meetings in which he discusses with the trainer the work done, taking into account the learning process and determines the plan of further actions. Mentors should have a strong desire to act, not only in their work, but also in the support of the learner. The mentor should motivate employees to engage in a variety of tasks, advise and support in career development. However, there are many barriers that can hinder a mentor's work, e.g. :
- lack of willingness to share knowledge
- fear of losing your benefits
- inexperience in teaching others
- fear of losing your power
- expanding the scope of tasks - it is about increasing the range of tasks both similar and diverse in the whole. By combining main tasks with auxiliary tasks, employees improve their qualifications and diversify the nature of their work. The extension of the scope of work can also be introduced by increasing the self-control of employees, they are responsible for the quality of the work performed and for any defects. Thanks to this, I feel strongly connected to the company and involved in the organization's affairs.
- specialist instruction at the workplace - it is about showing a new employee by the manager, co-worker or an instructor from the outside of the method of performing various activities. The new employee learns the activities through imitation, performing self-perceived activities.
- job rotation - involves methodically shifting employees to other workplaces. This enables broadening, deepening and increasing qualifications at work, improving the motivation of employees, while simultaneously reducing the monotony. The mission of rotation is not to perform only homogeneous work, at which you can not use your qualifications and skills, and the transition to perform various tasks in which the employee fully uses their capabilities.
- stress when changing position
- making mistakes at a new position at work
- insufficient specialization
- greater mobility of employees
- increased integration within the company
- individual training ("sitting with Nellie") - it is based on the fact that the newly employed person in the company sits on an experienced employee and looks at the activities performed by him. After the training, I receive my own equipment and perform the tasks myself. When preparing the training individually:
- Find a person who can perform tasks that are the scope of learning.
- Confirm that the selected person can give directions and teach a newly employed person.
- Complete the training. The new employee sits on the trainer who explains and shows how the action should be performed, making sure everything is understandable. At the end, the new employee independently performs the work under the supervision of Nellie.
- Convince yourself that a new employee can independently and correctly perform the task.
- Make sure that as long as the new employee can not perform the task on his own, he does work under the constant supervision of the trainer.
Individual training is the most cost-effective in the case of routine or recurring activities.
- Project management - it is a technique involving experienced employees who want to expand their knowledge. Employees already have some experience and want to verify their skills by completing new tasks. In this way, they will learn whether the knowledge they have acquired is sufficient to implement a specific innovative project. You can find many definitions of the concept of project management, however, they differ in small elements. In the Project Management Institute's view, project management "relies on the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques in relation to activities performed in a single project in order to meet or exceed the needs and expectations of stakeholders towards the project", in other words, project management involves implementation of individual project stages with the intention of successfully completing the project.
- self-education - it is about learning independently without the help of a coach or Nellie, only or partly at the workplace. Independent self-education takes place with the help of a book on a given topic. Then the learning is verified, the work is reviewed and sent to the learner. You can also expand the self-study package with the help of additional materials, audio programs or interactive videos.
- Independent self-education is sometimes a difficult and long process, in need of high motivation and self-denial to gain new knowledge. Therefore, it is important that you can count on the help of an expert with whom you can talk, ask questions and analyze problems.
Advantages and disadvantages of training at the workplace
- employees have a greater opportunity to get to know each other during their work
- the assessment of training results occurs on a regular basis during the performance of individual tasks
- the training is adapted to the employee through knowledge about his skills and qualifications
- it is not transferred by the employee only automatically used in practice.
- the threat that trainers inefficiently give knowledge to the trainers
- the presence of a trainer can act to the disadvantage of the trainer, fear of ridiculing himself in the eyes of the superior
- the fear of the trainer from degradation through better education of the newly hired employee
- Ioffe, S., & Szegedy, C. (2015). Batch normalization: Accelerating deep network training by reducing internal covariate shift. arXiv preprint arXiv:1502.03167.
- Arthur Jr, W., Bennett Jr, W., Edens, P. S., & Bell, S. T. (2003). Effectiveness of training in organizations: A meta-analysis of design and evaluation features. Journal of Applied psychology, 88(2), 234.
- Carretta, T. R. (2000). US Air Force pilot selection and training methods (No. AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2000-0122). AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH HUMAN EFFECTIVENESS DIRECTORATE.