Organizational behavior, is the action of the members of the organization (both employees and managers) focused on the objectives of the organization, due to internal and external factors (formal and cultural). The objective of management is to modify the behaviour of employees, to strengthen positive behaviours and eliminate negative behaviours.
Models of men in human behaviour research
Model of economic man
- A man only increases effort because of influence of economic incentives (positive and negative)
- Man acts as a machine (of particular strength, speed, endurance)
- A man is considered in isolation from the group in which they work
- The existence of the group (conflict, friendship, relationships between people) is ignored
- Theory of interpersonal relations
- The psychological motives of behaviour, group relations, causes of conflict and informal relationships
- The hierarchy of human needs (by A. Maslow): physiological needs, safety needs, the need to belong, the need for recognition, the need for self-actualization, the need for knowledge, the need for aesthetic experiences.
Principles of behaviour modification
- activity bringing pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, behaviour bringing negative consequences, is unlikely to be repeated (this claim is based on the model of stimulus-> response-> consequences-> future responses)
- Usually it is more effective to reward desired behavior than punishing unwanted
- do not reward all equally
- no reaction also can modify the behavior
- inform subordinates what to do to get the reinforcement
- tell subordinates what they are doing wrong
- employees should not be punished in front of others
- manager has to be fair
- Identify awards valued by each of the subordinates
- Set the desired level of efficiency
- Ensure affordability of a set level of efficiency
- Linking reward to efficiency of results
- Analyse the factors that may limit the effectiveness of reward
- Ensuring the adequacy of awards to employees needs.
Behavior modification techniques
- Positive reinforcing (the consequence of previous behavior encourages its repetition)
- Avoidance learning (occurs when a person avoid or escape from unpleasant consequences)
- Blanking (no reinforcement of the unwanted behaviour, ignore bad behaviour)
- Punishment (inappropriate behaviour has negative consequences)
The theory of expectations
- People have different needs and expectations, shaped by previous experience
- People make decisions about their behaviour in organizations
- People have different needs, desires and goals
- People choose behaviour based on the expectation that this behaviour leads to the desired result
Theory of justice
An important factor of motivation, efficiency and satisfaction is an individual assessment by an employee of justice or equity of awards received by others, justice is the ratio of employee effort and the rewards received.
Examples of Organizational behavior
- Communication Skills: Effective communication skills are essential for success in any organization. This includes verbal, nonverbal, and written communication. Examples include active listening, being able to express yourself through writing, and being able to give clear instructions.
- Teamwork: Teamwork is an important part of any organization. It involves working together to achieve a common goal. Examples include having team meetings, working together on projects, and collaborating with other departments.
- Problem-Solving: Problem-solving is essential for organizational success. Examples include being able to identify problems, analyze solutions, and work together to develop effective solutions.
- Interpersonal Skills: Interpersonal skills are essential for successful employees in any organization. Examples include being able to resolve conflicts, managing difficult conversations, and working with people from diverse backgrounds.
- Leadership: Leadership is an important part of any organization. Examples include setting goals, motivating employees, and leading by example.
- Adaptability: Adaptability is essential for any organization to remain competitive. Examples include being able to adjust to changing conditions, dealing with unexpected situations, and responding quickly to customer needs.
Advantages of Organizational behavior
Organizational behavior has many advantages. These include:
- Improved morale and motivation: By understanding the behavior of employees, managers can create an environment that encourages positive behavior, leading to increased motivation and morale.
- Improved communication: By understanding the behavior of employees, managers can create an environment that encourages open communication, leading to improved understanding between employees and managers.
- Increased productivity: By understanding the behavior of employees, managers can create an environment that fosters collaboration and innovation, leading to increased productivity.
- Improved customer service: By understanding the behavior of employees, managers can create an environment that encourages customer focus, leading to improved customer service.
- Reduced turnover: By understanding the behavior of employees, managers can create an environment that rewards good performance and provides ongoing training and development, leading to reduced turnover.
Limitations of Organizational behavior
Organizational behavior has its limitations, some of which include:
- Difficult to measure: It is difficult to measure how behavior affects organizational performance, as it is often dependent on external factors.
- Subjective: Organizational behavior can be highly subjective, as it is based on individual's interpretation and biases.
- Limited scope: It is limited in scope, as it does not take into account all the aspects of an organization, such as organizational structure and culture.
- Change: It can be difficult to change behavior, as it is often deeply ingrained in an organization.
- Unpredictability: Organizational behavior is often unpredictable, due to the complexity of the environment and the human element.
Organizational behavior is a complex field that encompasses a range of approaches and concepts. Below are some additional approaches related to organizational behavior:
- Human Resources Management: This approach focuses on how the organization manages its employees to achieve the desired outcomes. It focuses on recruiting, hiring, and retaining qualified and skilled employees, as well as how to motivate and reward employees for their performance.
- Systems Theory: This approach focuses on how the organization interacts with its external environment and how it is affected by outside influences. It also looks at how the different parts of the organization interact with each other, and how they can be managed to improve the organization’s performance.
- Organizational Development: This approach looks at how the organization can be changed and improved. It involves designing and implementing strategies and tactics to create a more effective organization.
- Organizational Culture: This approach looks at how the organization’s culture affects the behavior of its employees and how it can be managed to create a more productive and positive work environment.
In summary, organizational behavior includes a range of approaches such as human resources management, systems theory, organizational development, and organizational culture, all of which are aimed at improving the effectiveness of the organization and its employees.
- Argyris, C. (1960). Understanding organizational behavior.
- Greenberg, J., & Baron, R. A. (2008). Behavior in organizations.
- Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1993). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources. Prentice-Hall, Inc.
- Miles, R. H. (1980). Macro organizational behavior. Goodyear Pub. Co..
- Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2003). Essentials of organizational behavior (Vol. 200, No. 1). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.