Effective communication occurs when people understand what they are saying to each other. It can be described as the ability to communicate (A.K Malik, A.P Girdhar.,2018, pp.1). Communication is the process of creating, transmitting, receiving and interpreting messages between people - the process of mutual transfer of information between the sender and the recipient. It takes place on many levels, some of which are conscious and some are not. Effective communication is the transmission of a message in such a way that the recipient understands the intentions of the interlocutor (A.K Malik, A.P Girdhar.,2018, pp.1-2). This process only makes sense if the message received is as close as possible to the broadcast message in terms of meaning and encourages the recipient to take action in line with the sender's expectations. In order to exchange information about our beliefs, feelings, feelings, judgments, needs and expectations, we use verbal, non-verbal and vocal communication (A.K Malik, A.P Girdhar.,2018, pp.1-3).
Features of effective communication
Effective communication is characterized by the fact that the sender and the recipient (R. Kapur, 2018, pp.2-5):
- remove noise (background noise),
- use verbal and non-verbal communication consciously,
- choose the right type of communication for the place and time of the meeting,
- send out a clear concept of the message,
- use a known language of the recipient,
- make sure that the information has reached the recipient,
- make sure that the message has been interpreted correctly,
- observe the reaction of the recipient to the information,
In order to increase the effectiveness of communication, remember to (R. Kapur, 2018, pp.2-5):
- mastering emotional reactions that may intimidate or even outrage other team members, reducing mutual trust and making it difficult to build a friendly atmosphere,
- clear and concise message formulation - information should be conveyed and received with attention to four aspects of communication:
- Relevant (communication only)
- Self-presentation (information about the sender's feelings)
- Interrelationships (information on the relation between the sender and the recipient about interrelationships)
- Appeal (encouragement, request for task).
Elements of effective communication
An effective communication process is built on the following elements (F. O. Arop 2017, pp.72019 – 72023):
- thoughts, i.e. the content of the message - what you communicate and the recipient's mind receives at the level of intellect,
- emotions, i.e. the way you communicate and attitude towards the other person - how you influence the emotions of the recipient and what means, ways and techniques you use to convey the message,
- action, i.e. your ability to get feedback - whether you are able to cause a reaction in another person.
- Communication skills - knowledge of language, linguistic correctness and diligence, taking care of adequate choice of style and vocabulary, the ability to convince, negotiate, etc. formulation of clear and comprehensible messages (F. O. Arop 2017, pp.72019 – 72023),
- Attitude - open and encouraging, self-confident, clear and concrete messages social and cultural experiences - knowledge of rules of morality, conventions, savoir vivre rules, ability to adapt the way of speaking and style of language to the recipient and the situation, personal culture in the use of language.
When all these elements are present in the act of communication, conviction and passion emanate from the message, the messages are clear and concrete, and we appear to be trustworthy people. Our listeners will not always remember what we said to them, but they will remember for a long time the emotions that accompanied them during the speech. It is important that these are positive emotions and that the message is understood (F. O. Arop 2017, pp.72019 – 72023).
The conditions for effective communication
In order to communicate effectively, the following elements of the communication act should be kept in mind, namely:
- The precise purpose of the communication- Achieving a goal is only possible if we are aware of it. Before you start a conversation, it is worth considering what you are planning to achieve (it can be only listening to the other person, but also a hint, advice, decision making). After defining the goal of the conversation it is worth to articulate it to our interlocutor (S. Celińska - Nieckarz, Z. Nieckarz, 2012, pp.356).
- Clear and precise messages- The language we use should be simple and unambiguous, as well as suited to the interlocutor. Avoid abbreviations and jargon (if you are not sure that the interaction partner understands them), as well as long and complex sentences. It is worth repeating the most important information, using different words. Let's talk about facts and specific events (S. Celińska - Nieckarz, Z. Nieckarz, 2012, pp.358).
- Active listening- The key to understanding the interlocutor is to show interest. Focus on your partner's words and body language and make eye contact with the interlocutor, do not interrupt the interaction and ask additional questions (preferably open, leaving room for honest opinion) (S. Celińska - Nieckarz, Z. Nieckarz, 2012, pp.359).
- Constructive feedback- Feedback helps us find out if we have been correctly understood and how the other person perceives our behaviour. They also allow us to confront the purpose of the statement with the achieved results and make possible corrections (S. Celińska - Nieckarz, Z. Nieckarz, 2012, pp.360).
- Mastery- Patience is very important (it is important to have enough time to talk) and to keep emotions in control. Avoid arguing about "who is right". Replace the word "right" with "opinion" because, as you know, there are as many opinions as there are people in the world and everyone has a full right to have their own (S. Celińska - Nieckarz, Z. Nieckarz, 2012, pp.363).
- Responsibility for one's own message- If we want to be perceived as credible and trustworthy, we must take responsibility for our own words. Let us not hesitate to point out that we are not sure. If you see that your interlocutor seems to be embarrassed, do not pass the responsibility and try to clarify or explain your point of view. Let's admit our mistakes and correct the distorted message on an ongoing basis (S. Celińska - Nieckarz, Z. Nieckarz, 2012, pp.365).
- Respect towards the interlocutor- Listen carefully to your interlocutor, without interrupting them and treating their words with seriousness and interest. Avoid personal digressions, malice, verbal aggression or the so-called hate speech. Do not insult, scoff or ridicule the interlocutor, even if you do not agree with their opinions (S. Celińska - Nieckarz, Z. Nieckarz, 2012, pp.366).
Effective non-verbal communication
Non-verbal communication can give us more information than just the words of the interlocutor. Pay attention to whether the behaviour of the interaction partner seems to be consistent with what he or she says (M I. H. M. Razak, et all.2019, p. 12). Try to use body language to make a positive impression: sit or stand upright, smile, accentuate the most important information with the tone of voice, choose the optimal speed and volume of speech. Non-verbal messages are an important prerequisite for effective communication (M I. H. M. Razak, et all.2019, p. 12). It is very important that managers get to know the components of non-verbal communication. Firstly, they will be able to control their non-verbal behaviour, and secondly, they will be able to read their meanings in other people. Body language reveals the person's authentic intentions during communication (M I. H. M. Razak, et all.2019, p.12).
There are several types of non-verbal communication (L. Kelvin-Iloafu,2017, pp.93-99): Gestures are e.g. movements of hands, hands, head. Using it, we emphasize something, emphasize the elements of speech. The effectiveness of non-verbal communication increases:
- Facial expressions - on the one hand we express emotions, but on the other hand it is an element emphasizing verbal content.
- Touch - It helps to build a relationship between a subordinate and a superior (L. Kelvin-Iloafu,2017, pp.93-99).
- Visual contact - eyes are the main transmitter of information, through their movements we build the impression of closeness.
- Distance between interlocutors - we distinguish intimate, personal, social and open space. Business meetings should be held in the social sphere.
- Body position - this is the way a person sits and stands.
- Physical appearance and clothing - it expresses the attitude we have towards the interlocutor. Tidy and aesthetic clothing signals respect for the other person.
Non-verbal features of speech are e.g. the intonation of the voice or the rhythm of speech. They emphasize our intentions in relation to the interlocutor and thanks to them we can effectively influence other (L. Kelvin-Iloafu,2017, pp.93-99).
- Para-linguistic sounds diversify the communication process. These are signs of expression of feelings (laughter, crying).
- Elements of the physical environment - it is connected with the place in which the interlocutors find themselves.
- Mastering all the elements and controlling them is a very difficult and complicated skill. Managers who want employees to understand the message must learn to control non-verbal messages. Mastering body language will allow for more effective communication with subordinates (L. Kelvin-Iloafu,2017, pp.93-99).
The importance of effective communication
The ability to communicate well with others is very important from the perspective of our personal development - it helps us to build positive contacts with others, avoid conflicts and increase the effectiveness of our persuasion. These principles can improve the quality of all these aspects (S. Celińska - Nieckarz, Z. Nieckarz, 2012, p.395).
- Arop F. O., Owan V. J., Akan E. M., (2017), Effective Communication Management And The Performance Of Tertiary Institutions In Cross River State, Nigeria, International Journal of Current Research, 10(07),
- Celińska - Nieckarz S., Nieckarz Z., (2012), Guidelines for effective communication in an organization, in book Empirical aspects of the psychology of management, WSAiB Gdynia,
- Kapur R., (2018), Barriers to Effective Communication,
- Kelvin-Iloafu L.,(2017), The Role Of Effective Communication In Strategic Management Of Organizations, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 6(12),
- Malik A.K, Girdhar A.P., (2018), Essence of Effective Communication, in book Road Map For Success In Career Planning And Advancement,
- Razak M I. H. M.,Athmar W. A. W. ,Durani N.,A J. Salleh, (2019), Effective Communication As a Tool for Achieving Organizational goals, KNE Social Science,
Author: Marzena Rusin