Stages of project
|Stages of project|
|Methods and techniques|
Project management consists of the following stages.
- Defining the project.
- Project planning.
- Implementation of the project.
- Project control and monitoring.
- Closing the project.
Defining the project
The first stage of the project is definition, it has a conceptual character. It is very important in later cycles. At this stage, it is necessary to define the scope of work necessary to perform, and to divide them among team members. We can distinguish here three sub-stages, such as:
- Project initiation.
- Defining the project.
- Building a project team.
The project initiation consists in the cooperation of the project manager with the clients. It is important to agree on the most important aspects at this stage and to define the scope of the project. Here can be helpful answering the following questions.
- What is the project about?
- What is the purpose of the project?
- What are the milestones in the project necessary to achieve the goal?
- How will we evaluate the success of the project?
- What is the risk associated with this project?
Defining a project is aimed at defining the project's subject, explaining its nature, purpose and scope of the project. It should contain the following steps:
- Interpretation of the project subject.
- Defining the subject scope of the project.
- Definition of the functional scope of the project.
- Analysis and assessment of project risk.
- Evaluation of expenditures and benefits related to the implementation of the project.
- Making a decision on the implementation of the project.
- Setting goals of the project implementation.
Building a project team consists of the following stages:
- Selection of the institutional form of the project implementation.
- Appointment of project management.
- Establishment of other project management bodies.
- Organizing the work of the project team.
- Acquiring employees of the project team.
- Developing the work plan of the project team.
- Approval of the organization and work plan of the project team.
- Approval of the organization and work plan of the project team by management.
The next stage is Planning, it has an organizational and planning character. At this stage, a preliminary project plan is created, its structure and course defined. As you can see, this stage is very important and will have a significant impact on the subsequent phases. Here, we can also distinguish the sub-stages such as:
- Determining the structure of the project.
- specifying the project's goals
- gathering additional information about the project
- determination of project division criteria
- determining the hierarchical structure of the project
- defining the project's coordination structure
- approval of the project structure by management
- Planning the course of the project.
- determining the time of project implementation
- planning deadlines for the implementation of project activities
- calculation of time reserves
- definition of critical elements of the project
- verification of the course of the project
- approval of the project management plan by management
- Planning project resources.
- Organizing the performance of the project.
At this stage, a project plan is created, which is a formally approved document used during the management and control and implementation of the project. Project plan should contain:
- Needs, goals and requirements.
- Definition of tasks, their structure and scope.
- Characteristics of the technical approach.
- Determination of the organizational structure of the project.
- Selection of employees and determination of responsibility for tasks.
- Budget construction and risk analysis.
The Gantt chart can be helpful at this stage, where we can plan the scope of work in great detail. The project manager should foresee several possible solutions from which the most appropriate ones can be selected.
Implementation of the project
Once we have all the activities planned, there is nothing else to do but start realizing it. At this stage, the goals included in the plan should be achieved step by step. At this stage, work should be divided among team members. The project manager should pay attention to the following matters:
- Identification of resources necessary to carry out the plan.
- Assigning tasks to team members.
- Development of the schedule.
- Introducing the plan into effect.
Control and monitoring
Project control basically takes place throughout the life cycle of the project, it is necessary to avoid errors at the project implementation stage. The main areas of control are:
- Economic and financial condition of the company.
- Organization of the project management process.
- HR management.
- Production technique.
- Market and marketing.
- Financial policy.
- Control of the dates of preparation and execution of the project.
- Control of resource consumption during the preparation and execution of projects.
- Control of the costs of preparation and implementation of projects.
- Control of deliveries and subcontracting.
- Project risk control.
- Quality control of the project.
- Control of the work of the project team.
The controlling entities are broad management and specialized organizational units and research commissions. The inspection phase is as follows:
- Determining the results.
- Measuring results.
- Comparison of results with standards.
- Evaluation of results and response.
- Change of norms, correction of deviations or maintenance of the status quo.
Closing the project
Closing the project takes place in the following stages:
- Receipt of the project by the client.
- Project settlement.
- Preparation of a report on the implementation of the project.
- Making the decision to finish the project.
- Solution of the project team.
Project reception should take place when the quality objectives of the project have been achieved. It can be conditional when the project's result needs improvement. After this stage, the client is settled. The final report is designed to serve the user of the project and gather knowledge gained during its implementation.
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- Meadati, P. (2009). BIM extension into later stages of project life cycle. In Associated Schools of Construction 45th Annual International Conference (p. 121-129).
- Stewart, R. A. (2008). A framework for the life cycle management of information technology projects: ProjectIT. International Journal of Project Management, 26(2), 203-212.