Structure of enterprise planning system
|Structure of enterprise planning system|
Structure Of Enterprise Planning System is a presentation of the company's plan hierarchy, starting from the main goal (vision and mission) through its strategy, ending with operational planning (L.A. Toledo, 2011, pp. 172-186). It is important to closely integrate the various categories of these plans for the effective functioning of the strategic management system.
Scope of planning system
Planning is mainly about setting objectives and actions in line with them. This concept can be understood as a project for the future and the selection of appropriate measures for its organization. Planning can also be understood as acting in the future, based on anticipating later events in a limited time and selecting the most appropriate and beneficial means, objectives, tasks and means (D.F. Neis, M.F. Pereira, E.A. Maccar, 2017, pp.24-26).
Types of planning systems
Considering the time horizon, we can distinguish (A. Damnjanovic, 2016, pp.26-28):
- Strategic planning in a different long-term perspective, whose development is estimated to be longer than 5 years
- Long-term planning, lasting from 2 to 5 years, is mainly aimed at achieving a higher objective.
- Medium-term planning, the duration of which is normally estimated to be between several months and a year, is a support task for achieving long-term objectives.
- Short-term planning, otherwise operational, with a duration of up to three months, is short, concise and not usually time-consuming.
- Current planning, there are daily or maximum weekly tasks, mainly various types of meetings and basic tasks to be carried out during the day.
The role of the Planning System in the enterprise
Planning is a very important function within the enterprise. For this reason it should be a starting point for various activities carried out in the company. The activities in question are mainly related to the team, the organization and various types of projects. The following activities should be carried out in connection with planning (H.M. El Sherif, 2013, pp.178-180):
- analyze the current situation in the company
- reflect on the changes that may happen in the future
- set targets to be achieved in the future
- analyse the resources available (tangible, intangible, human, financial) and identify the resources needed for the future
- identify activities that are intended to contribute to the achievement of the objectives pursued
- analyze the consequences of taking or not taking specific actions in the company
- identify ways to control and monitor performance in pursuit of plans
Elements Of The Planning System
The Planning System contains seven main components (R.A. Acheampong, 2018, pp.11-27):
This process involves decisions that have to be taken before planning can begin. Choose the approach to planning and the style of presentation of the plans. You decide on the computer tools for estimating, planning and considering the levels and the required detail.
Identification and analysis of outputs
All activities in the project lead to the production of certain products that make up the final result. This process requires identification of the products required by the project. Products are defined by means of product descriptions. When working out a product diagram, one analyses the mutual relations between products.
Determination of actions and relations between them
All actions included in the plan are defined in the product flow diagram. The process of determining actions is referred to as "transformation". The diagram is also useful for showing the relationship between actions.
Rarely can a plan contain accurate values. Most often you need to estimate. Without estimating all necessary parameters, it is not possible to develop a plan and thus to start actions. There are different estimation methods, one of them is "Delphi", which consists in asking specialists to answer, which is verified with appropriate filters until you get a consensus on the most optimistic, pessimistic and probable estimations.
To create a schedule it is necessary to prepare a PERT (Programme Evaluation and Review Technique) network diagram and a Ganita chart. A computer planning tool is used. The plan created in this process includes: the work to be done with the start and end dates and the persons necessary to complete them.
Risk should be addressed at all times in the planning process. All resources should be reviewed for potential hazards and actions to ensure that adequate reserves are included in the plan. There are different sources of risk, for example: quality issues, ability to meet deadlines, source of workforce and types of skills and commitment from team management.
Compilation of the plan
The closing stage of the plan involves putting all the elements together and preparing a short discussion on important points. The plan description is accompanied by various plans and analysis sheets, and the product checklist is completed with the start and end dates of each product. The plan can be understood in different ways as a rational description of the task and a way of execution, as a tool to achieve the goal, or a bit metaphorically as a "map of the future" - that is, a picture of what should be expected in the project. From a technical point of view, the plan is a tool for coordinating team activities, resources and a basis for measuring progress and controlling the project. It provides tools to support effective and efficient project management, i.e. to achieve the project objective on time and on budget.
The structure of the planning system determines and describes the subsequent stages of planning, among which it stands out:
- Entrepreneurial phase - during this phase managers very rarely use the planning functions. Their main goal is to search for answers to emerging problems.
- Administrative gap stage - at this stage planning starts to appear slowly, used mainly to increase efficiency.
- The expectations gap stage - at this stage the plans are related to the company's vision. Their task is to assess the vision of the company's further operation.
- Strategic development stage - during this stage managers reflect on actions aimed at growth of the already stabilized company and searching for new solutions and improvements for their business.
- Acheampong R.A., (2018). The Concept of Spatial Planning and the Planning System, „Spatial Planning in Ghana: Origins, Contemporary Reforms and Practices, and New Perspectives”, Edition: 1, Springer
- Damnjanovic A., (2016). Management Of The Workforce And Business Planning, "Economics and Management-Based on New Technologies" vol.6, Vrnjačka Banja
- El Sherif H.M., (2013). Information System Strategic Plan
- Maleka S., (2014). Strategic Management and Strategic Planning Process, "DTPS Strategic Planning & Monitoring” vol.1, Pretoria
- Neis D.F., Pereira M.F. ,Maccar E.A., (2017). Strategic planning process|Strategic Planning Process and Organizational structure|Organizational Structure: Impacts, Confluence and Similarities, "Brasilian Bussiness Review"
- Toledo L.A., (2011). Marketing planning and organization structures, "Revista Gestão Industrial" 7(2)
Author: Bartosz Wojak