Types of control system

From CEOpedia | Management online

The main task of control system is to improve procedures, processes and to indicate whether the company is functioning properly. Through analysis and various types of control, the company can evaluate the company's past performance and indicate the closest goals to be achieved.

Main types of control system

Several types of control system in management can be distinguished:

  • Preliminary controls - performed before taking action, involving necessary human, material and financial resources. Checking if they are at designated place and time, in planned quantity and quality.
  • Control in action - detect deviations from established standards, allows to make corrections before the end of a particular sequence of actions. Important feature of control is short time from onset of deviations to obtaining information by the manager
  • Decision control - involves the acceptance or rejection of certain courses of action. It involves verifying that certain conditions are met before continuing with action. Frequently it is additional control function performed by another manager, usually at a higher level of management
  • Final Inspection - involves measuring results of the completed action. Managers determine causes of deviations from the plan or standards, and the results are used as goals for similar activities in the future. It is an instrument used for rewarding employees.
  • Strategic control - the purpose of this audit is to show whether the company has a chance of achieving the assumed plan. The main task is to obtain the information needed to analyse potential risks.
  • Internal control / external control
  • Independent audit - independent assessment of a given company, project or plan. The examined object, on the basis of which the assessment is made, are business processes, correctness of procedures with regulations, financial statements, the reliability of data provided by the company is also evaluated. The audit is carried out by internal and external experts.
  • Strategic evaluation and control
  • Management control system - in order to achieve specific goals, a good organisation is needed. From well-organised workers, their work to the use of resources and their proper use. Control is designed to monitor the progress of these processes and alert when improvements are needed. By making an inspection, the company can avoid similar errors in the future, predict future events or determine the causes of the errors committed.

Other types of control system

Industrial control (INS) - this system is used to identify different types of control systems. It includes all kinds of devices which are to among other things, automate industrial processes. Industrial control describes the interaction of software and hardware with the network connectivity. These controls can be subdivided into:

  1. SCADA (supervise control and data acquisition),
    • Also known as the Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is a self-contained system designed to control the process, supervise the course of technological and production and to acquire up-to-date data. It allows you to track and control the operation of your machines. It is used not only in enterprises but also in power plants. It usually consists of logic controllers (PLCs)[1].
  2. DCS (distributed control system),
    • This system is designed to automate technological processes and manufacturing processes. Difference between this control and SCADA is it that has the ability to visualize and control, so it is more advanced technology. It uses a network to connect controllers with executive devices or sensors[2]. The DCS is therefore mainly used in the field of process control and SCADA focuses on supervisory controls.

Examples of Types of control system

  • Management by Objectives (MBO): This system of control involves setting measurable objectives and targets that the organization can use to evaluate its performance and progress. These objectives are established by top-level management, and are then communicated and implemented by other levels of the organization.
  • Balanced Scorecard: This system of control uses a combination of financial and non-financial performance measures to evaluate the effectiveness of an organization. The scorecard looks at factors such as customer satisfaction, operational efficiency, innovation, and employee morale.
  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): This system of control uses specific performance metrics to measure the success of an organization. These indicators help to identify areas of improvement and can be used to track performance over time. Examples of KPIs include customer satisfaction scores, sales conversion rates, and customer retention rates.
  • Quality Control: This system of control involves monitoring and assessing the quality of products or services produced by an organization. Quality control measures such as inspections and testing are used to ensure that the organization is meeting its standards for quality.
  • Risk Management: This system of control involves assessing and managing the risks associated with an organization’s operations. This can include identifying potential risks, assessing their impact, and developing strategies to mitigate those risks. Risk management is an important part of ensuring the safety and security of an organization.

Advantages of Types of control system

A control system is a powerful tool that can help a company improve its processes and procedures. The main advantages of having a control system in place include:

  • Improved accuracy and reliability in data, as well as the ability to identify errors and take corrective action.
  • Increased visibility of operations, allowing managers to monitor progress, identify problems and implement improvements.
  • Automation of certain processes, which can save time and money by eliminating manual labor.
  • Improved efficiency through better planning, forecasting, and decision making.
  • Enhanced compliance, as the system can help ensure that a company is meeting industry regulations.
  • Improved communication, as it can help to keep all stakeholders informed about the status of operations.
  • Increased customer satisfaction, as it can help to ensure that the company is providing quality services and goods.

Limitations of Types of control system

  • The main limitations of control systems are the complexity of the system, the cost of implementation, the lack of flexibility, and the difficulty of measuring success.
  • Complexity: Control systems can be difficult to set up, especially if they require multiple different components to be integrated. Additionally, complex systems may be challenging to maintain and update.
  • Cost: Control systems can be expensive to implement, especially if they involve complex hardware or software.
  • Flexibility: Control systems may be rigid and inflexible, making it difficult to adapt to changing conditions.
  • Measuring success: It can be difficult to measure the success of a control system, as there may be no clear indication of whether it is working or not. Additionally, it can be difficult to accurately assess the impact of a control system on the overall performance of the company.

Other approaches related to Types of control system

  • Strategic Control System: This system focuses on long-term goals and objectives. It evaluates the performance of the company to ensure they are in line with the set objectives.
  • Operational Control System: This system focuses on day-to-day performance and evaluates the accuracy of completed tasks. It helps identify areas of improvement, and can be used to make changes to existing processes.
  • Managerial Control System: This system is used to evaluate individual performance and ensure that employees are meeting their goals and objectives. It also helps to ensure that employees are following company policies and procedures.
  • Performance Control System: This system is used to track and measure the performance of the organization, and helps to identify areas for improvement. It can also be used to set goals for the organization.

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  1. A. Daneels , W. Salter (1999). What Is SCADA ?. International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, 339.
  2. Keith Stouffer, Joe Falco, Karen Kent (2006). Overview of SCADA, DCS, and PLCs. Guide to Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Industrial Control Systems Security, 2-1.

Author: Kamila Wronkowska