Planning and control
|Planning and control|
|Methods and techniques|
Planning and control are the two of management functions. Planning involves setting the organization's goals and control, otherwise known as controlling process, involves ensuring that performance does not deviate from standards, that means it involves checking whether processes in the organization run in line with the plans. Controlling is about using organization's resources in extremely optimal, economical way and with checking if the resources are used according to the strategic plan of the organization. Planning provides predeterminated goals against which actual performance is compared. We cannot think of an effective system of controlling without existence of well thought plans (Dr.S.V. Shinde, 2018). A production planning and control system is the core and key technology of production management systems. As excellent production planning and control system is an important tool to improve the overall automation level of enterprise and provide significant economic benefits for enterprises. A production planning and control system can directly determine whether the manufacturer can complete specific tasks in accordance with the expected demand. Its core function is to manage production tasks and resource allocation and utilization in manufacturing systems, and to meet customer's demands in the best possible way. A production planning and control system should contain the following processes:
- decomposing product tasks,
- analyzing resource demands,
- determining the operation sequence of a job,
- allocating machines
- and monitoring real-time task progress.
Meanwhile, this system should be able to deal with sudden changes in the actual manufacturing environment, such as lack of material, random machine breakdown, order changeover and rush orders (Jie Zhang, 2017).
Production planning and controlling mode
In a complicated and volatile production environment, the production planning and control strategy determines the information interaction and organization in the implementation of the production planning, scheduling and control activity so as to effect the efficiency and flexibility of the production planning and to control activity to a large extend. The typical production planning and control strategies include push and pull (Jie Zhang, 2017).
Push- a kind of production, which is developed on the basis of future demand predicted and actual orders received. It is a strategy, which is often used in a make-to-stock manufacturing system with a single product, stable demand and long delivery due date. Using this strategy can improve production efficiency, strengthen system stability and shorten the product delivery due date. This system cannot be applied in make-to-order and make-to-assembly manufacturing systems.
Pull- a kind of production planning and control strategy, which is to respond rapidly to customer's demand. It is a strategy, which is usually used in make-to order and make-to-assembly manufacturing systems. With this strategy, the production execution activity is driven by the response to customers orders. It can reduce inventory, improve system flexibility and rapidly respond to customer's demand (Jie Zhang, 2017).
Just–In-Time (JIT) system is the typical representative of a pull-based production planning and control strategy, which developed for a make-to-order manufacturing system. The basic idea of the system can be summarized as when it is a needed, according to the amount needed to produce the desired product. The core of Just-In-Time system is to pursuit either a non-inventory manufacturing system or minimum inventory factoring system. The successful application of a JIT system depends on four basic principles: waste elimination, participation of employees in making decisions, involvement of suppliers, and comprehensive quality management (Jie Zhang, 2017). The overall aim of JIT system is to obtain a balanced manufacturing system, and a smooth and rapid material handling flow throughout the entire system:
- To eliminate interruptions that are caused by low quality, machine breakdown, change of production schedule and delivery delay
- To be flexible, adapt to changes as variety and capacity
- To reduce production exchange time and production lead time
- To minimize inventory
- To eliminate waste
- Shinde Dr.S.V. (2018) Functions of management, Laxmi Book Publication, page 24-50
- Zhang Jie (2017) Multi-Agent-Based Production planning Production Planning and Control, John Wiley & Sons, page 64-67
- Łopatowska Jolanta (2015) Improving the production planning and control process, Journal of Management and Finance, Vol. 13 No:4/1/2015, page 119-130
- Lahijanian M., Wasniewski J., Andersson S.B., Belt C. (2010) Motion Planning and Control from Temporal Logic Specifications with Probabilistic Satisfaction Guarantees , IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation Anchorage Convention District, no: May 3-8, page 3227-3232
- Krenczyk Damian, Olender Malgorzata (2014) Production Planning and control using advances simulation systems, International Journal of Modern Manufacturing Technologies ISSN 2067–3604, Vol. VI, No. 2 page, 38-43
Author: Beata Franczyk