Advertising media

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Advertising is a form of presentation of concepts, goods, items or services by the use of advertising media. It is often the most important element of a company's overall marketing communications program.

There are many types of advertising media. There are the most common examples of them:

  • online advertising,
  • print advertising,
  • out-of-home advertising (OOH).

Online advertising

Online advertising is also known as Internet advertising or web advertising. It is defined as different forms of advertising that are delivered by the Internet. There are several forms of online advertising for example[1] :

  • banner advertising,
  • video advertising,
  • search engine advertising,
  • social network advertising.

"Internet advertising offers the user similar information-processing opportunities to print advertising. However, compared to print advertising, internet advertising provides additional flexibility to the receiver in terms of selecting presentation form, such as increased opportunities to focus on particularly interesting parts and the possibility of combining elements from other media, such as video and audio [2]".

Print advertising

There is a type of media advertising that is used in:

  • magazines,
  • newspapers,
  • brochures
  • leaflets,
  • direct mail advertising,
  • handouts.

According to Angelique van Niekerk and Gini Keyser: "Print advertisements use a considerable number of linguistic and language-related mechanisms in order to create the illusion of intimate interpersonal communication within the advertisement. In so doing, the message conveyed seems more credible. This entails that the copy-writer should be fully aware of the precise nature of the spoken language in order for the text markers of the spoken language to be included in print advertisements[3]".

Out-of-home advertising

This type of media advertising is dedicated to consumers that are out of the home. There are four major media platforms [4]:

  • outdoor advertising
  • transit media advertising
  • street furniture and retail-furniture advertising
  • digital and ambient out-of-home advertising.

In the opinion of V. Waldt and A. T. Roux: "Out-of-home (OOH) advertising media traditionally have not accounted for a large share of advertising budgets, but overall expenditure has grown considerably in recent years. Due to the transformation of the OOH advertising media landscape, and the diversity and ubiquitous nature of these media, there seem to be a discrepancy between the views of academic and industry experts on exactly what constitutes contemporary OOH advertising media [5]".

Examples of Advertising media

  • Print Media: This includes newspapers, magazines, brochures, flyers, posters and other printed materials used to reach potential customers.
  • Outdoor Advertising: This includes billboards, signs, kiosks, bus shelters and other outdoor displays used to promote a product or service.
  • Television Advertising: This includes commercials and infomercials used to promote a product or service.
  • Radio Advertising: This includes radio commercials and jingles used to promote a product or service.
  • Digital Media: This includes websites, online ads, social media, and mobile marketing used to promote a product or service.
  • Direct Mail: This includes letters, postcards, flyers, and other direct mail materials used to promote a product or service.

Advantages of Advertising media

Advertising media can be an effective tool for any business. It can help to reach a broad audience and provide the opportunity to communicate with potential customers. Here are some of the advantages of advertising media:

  • Increased Brand Recognition: Advertising media can help to increase brand recognition by providing an opportunity to create a consistent message across different media channels. This can help to create a strong brand identity and drive more sales.
  • Increased Reach: Advertising media can reach a larger audience than traditional methods, such as print and television. This can help to increase the reach of a product or service and build a broader customer base.
  • Cost-Effective: Advertising media can be more cost-effective than traditional methods due to the ability to target specific audiences. This can help to focus marketing efforts and get the most out of a limited budget.
  • Flexible: Advertising media can be used in a variety of ways. This can help to adjust messages and strategies to fit different target audiences.
  • Measurable: Advertising media can provide a way to measure results, such as clicks and impressions. This can help to track the success of a campaign and make adjustments as needed.

Limitations of Advertising media

Advertising media has its limitations. These include:

  • Cost: Advertising is expensive and can be the most costly part of a company's marketing budget. This makes it difficult for small businesses and start-ups to effectively advertise their products and services.
  • Clutter: Advertising media is often bombarded with a vast array of messages from different companies, making it difficult to stand out and capture consumer attention.
  • Targeting: Advertising media does not always accurately target the desired customer demographic, making it difficult to reach the right consumer audience.
  • Short Attention Span: The average consumer's attention span is very short, making it difficult to capture and hold their attention for any length of time.
  • Limited Reach: Advertising media often has a limited reach, making it difficult to reach customers in different parts of the country or world.
  • Lack of Interactivity: Unlike digital marketing, advertising media does not allow for direct customer engagement and feedback.

Other approaches related to Advertising media

Advertising media is an important element of a company's overall marketing communications program. Other approaches related to advertising media include:

  • Direct mail: This is a form of advertising which involves sending promotional messages directly to target consumers. Direct mail campaigns are usually tailored to a specific audience and can be used to promote specific products or services.
  • Online advertising: This involves placing ads on websites, blogs, search engines, and social media platforms. Online advertisements can be targeted to specific audiences and can be used to reach a wide range of people.
  • Print advertising: This involves placing ads in newspapers, magazines, and other print media. Print advertisements can be used to target specific audiences and to create brand awareness.
  • Broadcast media: This involves placing ads on television, radio, podcasts, and other audio-visual media. Broadcast advertising can be used to reach a wide audience or to target specific demographics.
  • Out-of-home advertising: This involves placing ads in public spaces such as bus stops, train stations, and shopping centers. Out-of-home advertising can be used to target specific locations or to reach a wider audience.

In summary, advertising media is an important element of a company’s overall marketing communications program. Other approaches related to advertising media include direct mail, online advertising, print advertising, broadcast media, and out-of-home advertising. Each of these approaches can be used to target specific audiences and to create brand awareness.


  1. J. D. Ratliff, D. L. Rubinfel 2011, p. 6-20
  2. E. Breivik, H. Nysveen 2018, p. 386
  3. G. Keyser, A. Van Niekerk 2013, p. 160
  4. A. T. Roux 2016, p. 182
  5. A. T. Roux, V. Waldt, 2014, p. 22

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Author: Anna Szpakowska