The process approach is a dynamic approach to management. Its origins can be seen in the classical school of management: in the organization of production processes and ergonomic research. The development of the approach can be observed in system analysis, Forester's dynamics, analysis and design of management processes. This concept was examined, among others by Bieńkowski, Maire, J. Trzcieniecki, A. Stabryła and Z. Martyniak. This dynamic approach is being developed by the school of management process highlighted by Koontz, which is part of the universalist trend. It should be noted that the dynamic approach is not an opposition to the structural approach. These approaches complement each other by allowing a fuller description of the organization.
Process approach in ISO standards
The process approach has been described in the ISO 9001: 2000 standard. In earlier standards this approach did not occur, systems were implemented according to the points of the standard. A frequent problem was incorrect interpretation of the points of the norm as independent parts between which there are no connections. It was only the second amendment that changed the standard structure, facilitating this implementation. In the process approach, it was clearly shown that the organization's activities must be aimed at increasing customer satisfaction by meeting its requirements. The implementation of this objective must involve the identification of links between the activities performed in the organization and the client's requirements in all processes, and not only at the stage of the final effect. Separation of processes in the organization allows for easier monitoring, obtaining data on the functioning of the organization and improvement.
The introduction of the process approach has also facilitated the implementation of systems in service organizations, which was previously possible, but imposed on the organization of the corset keeping unnecessary documentation.
The essence of the process approach
Quality management principles The process approach is a look at the organization through a dynamic and integrative aspect. This approach is characterized by:
- including the system as a dynamic organization that is a composition of management processes and executive processes that are assigned multifunctional value chains.
- assignment of process analysis and design to the subject area:
- organization of activities
- working procedures
- developed horizontal communication focused on complex customer service
- a strong integration of management functions and operational functions due to the designation of managers to process coordinators
- the phenomenon of changing the organizational structure into input-output systems, and its arrangement is a reflection of specialization according to the subject-process criterion
- the fact that framework and working procedures are inherent in the processes
- creating by input-output systems a set of sequences having the character of controlling, regulatory and information couplings
Krzysztof McCormack, otherwise, describes the vision of the process approach, according to which the orientation of business processes is included in the following components:
- process functions
- process structure
- process tasks
- management process and set of process parameters
- process value
- simplifies understanding and criticism of one's own position in the strategic meaning of the organization
- it facilitates learning about an enterprise or institution and enlivens the information resources
The process approach is the equivalent of system dynamics and complements the static aspect of the organization. However, referring to a functional approach, he is a more advanced character. The beginnings of the process approach can be found in the classical school of management as well as in the school of the management process, the empirical school and the systemic school, so it is not the discovery of recent years.
- Smith, H., & Fingar, P. (2003). Business process management: the third wave (Vol. 1). Tampa: Meghan-Kiffer Press.
- Saaty, T. L. (2013). Analytic hierarchy process. In Encyclopedia of operations research and management science (p. 52-64). Springer, Boston, MA.
- Rosemann, M., & vom Brocke, J. (2015). The six core elements of business process management. In Handbook on business process management 1 (p. 105-122). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Author: Iwona Maślak