The process approach is a dynamic approach to management. Its origins can be seen in the classical school of management: in the organization of production processes and ergonomic research. The development of the approach can be observed in system analysis, Forester's dynamics, analysis and design of management processes. This concept was examined, among others by Bieńkowski, Maire, J. Trzcieniecki, A. Stabryła and Z. Martyniak. This dynamic approach is being developed by the school of management process highlighted by Koontz, which is part of the universalist trend. It should be noted that the dynamic approach is not an opposition to the structural approach. These approaches complement each other by allowing a fuller description of the organization.
Process approach in ISO standards
The process approach has been described in the ISO 9001: 2000 standard. In earlier standards this approach did not occur, systems were implemented according to the points of the standard. A frequent problem was incorrect interpretation of the points of the norm as independent parts between which there are no connections. It was only the second amendment that changed the standard structure, facilitating this implementation. In the process approach, it was clearly shown that the organization's activities must be aimed at increasing customer satisfaction by meeting its requirements. The implementation of this objective must involve the identification of links between the activities performed in the organization and the client's requirements in all processes, and not only at the stage of the final effect. Separation of processes in the organization allows for easier monitoring, obtaining data on the functioning of the organization and improvement.
The introduction of the process approach has also facilitated the implementation of systems in service organizations, which was previously possible, but imposed on the organization of the corset keeping unnecessary documentation.
The essence of the process approach
Quality management principles The process approach is a look at the organization through a dynamic and integrative aspect. This approach is characterized by:
- including the system as a dynamic organization that is a composition of management processes and executive processes that are assigned multifunctional value chains.
- assignment of process analysis and design to the subject area:
- organization of activities
- working procedures
- developed horizontal communication focused on complex customer service
- a strong integration of management functions and operational functions due to the designation of managers to process coordinators
- the phenomenon of changing the organizational structure into input-output systems, and its arrangement is a reflection of specialization according to the subject-process criterion
- the fact that framework and working procedures are inherent in the processes
- creating by input-output systems a set of sequences having the character of controlling, regulatory and information couplings
Krzysztof McCormack, otherwise, describes the vision of the process approach, according to which the orientation of business processes is included in the following components:
- process functions
- process structure
- process tasks
- management process and set of process parameters
- process value
- simplifies understanding and criticism of one's own position in the strategic meaning of the organization
- it facilitates learning about an enterprise or institution and enlivens the information resources
The process approach is the equivalent of system dynamics and complements the static aspect of the organization. However, referring to a functional approach, he is a more advanced character. The beginnings of the process approach can be found in the classical school of management as well as in the school of the management process, the empirical school and the systemic school, so it is not the discovery of recent years.
Examples of Process approach
- The process approach is useful for companies that need to manage complex processes and operations. It can be used to identify and improve on inefficient processes and to create better collaboration between departments. For example, a company that produces medical devices may use the process approach to analyze the different steps involved in the production process, identify areas of waste or inefficiency, and streamline the process.
- The process approach can also be used in customer service. For example, a company may use the approach to analyze the customer service process, identify areas of improvement, and provide better customer service experiences. This could include creating better customer feedback systems, streamlining customer onboarding processes, and providing better customer support.
- The process approach can also be used in the development of new products. Companies can use the approach to analyze the process of developing a new product, identify areas of improvement, and streamline the process. This can include analyzing the different stages of product development, identifying areas of inefficiency and waste, and optimizing the product development process.
Advantages of Process approach
The process approach offers a number of advantages in terms of organizational management. These include:
- Improved Efficiency: By introducing processes into the organization, managers can better identify and manage tasks, allowing organizations to run more efficiently. This allows them to reduce costs and increase productivity.
- Enhanced Quality: With processes in place, organizations can better identify and manage their quality assurance methods, allowing them to provide higher quality products and services.
- Improved Communication: With processes in place, organizations can better communicate with their stakeholders, allowing for a more unified approach to management.
- Increased Accountability: Processes provide a structure for accountability and make it easier for organizations to track progress and ensure that tasks are completed in a timely manner.
- Increased Flexibility: The process approach allows organizations to be more agile and responsive to changing market conditions. This helps them remain competitive and stay ahead of the competition.
Limitations of Process approach
The process approach has some limitations. These include:
- Difficulty in implementation: Process approach requires a great deal of time, dedication, and commitment to ensure that all processes are properly established and monitored. It also requires the development of new systems and structures, as well as the integration of existing systems to ensure that all processes are running smoothly and efficiently.
- Cost: The cost of implementing a process approach can be high, as it requires dedicated resources to ensure that all processes are properly established and monitored.
- Complexity: The process approach can be complex and difficult to understand and implement. It requires a thorough understanding of the organization and its processes to ensure that all processes are properly established and monitored.
- Lack of flexibility: Process approaches tend to be rigid and can be difficult to adjust or change in response to changing business or market conditions.
- Difficulty in measuring success: Process approaches can be difficult to measure and track, as they involve a number of different processes and require a long-term commitment to ensure that all processes are properly established and monitored.
The process approach is related to several other approaches, including:
- The systems approach, which focuses on the interactions between different parts of a system and how they affect the system as a whole.
- The resource-based view, which views an organization's resources as the primary means for achieving its goals and objectives.
- The activity-based approach, which examines the activities of an organization and how they impact its performance.
- The business process reengineering approach, which seeks to identify and eliminate inefficiencies in a business process.
In summary, the process approach is related to several other approaches, such as the systems approach, the resource-based view, the activity-based approach, and the business process reengineering approach. All of these approaches focus on different aspects of an organization and how they can be improved to increase efficiency and effectiveness.
- Smith, H., & Fingar, P. (2003). Business process management: the third wave (Vol. 1). Tampa: Meghan-Kiffer Press.
- Saaty, T. L. (2013). Analytic hierarchy process. In Encyclopedia of operations research and management science (p. 52-64). Springer, Boston, MA.
- Rosemann, M., & vom Brocke, J. (2015). The six core elements of business process management. In Handbook on business process management 1 (p. 105-122). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Author: Iwona Maślak