Effectiveness of training

Effectiveness of training
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Evaluation of training results is a necessary stage in training management in the company. The information obtained at this stage of the entire training process should be applied to a possible adjustment of activities. The basic function of the entire control process is the assessment of specific projects in order to get feedback on the effects of training or lack thereof.

Kirkpatrick's model[edit]

The entire training effectiveness assessment process is described by many models, the greater part of which is based on the determination of four or five levels of assessment. The best-known and most-used model was proposed by Kirkpatrick.


The first level of training evaluation is connected with the evaluation of participants' reactions to training. The assessment is made immediately after the training. It aims to examine the first impression about the training, what is the general opinion about the training and the leaders themselves. Questions addressed to the participants of the training are related to such issues as: satisfaction / dissatisfaction with the training, the level of achieving the set goals, the level of personal development, the organization of the training itself. Answers to these questions make it possible to determine whether the conditions in which the training was conducted and the methods used were appropriate. Obtained in this way, the information in most cases allows for the detection of technical mistakes made during the training and for their quick correction.


At this level, what new qualifications have been acquired by the participants of the training. The most effective testing method is testing competences, other also used methods are: knowledge tests, simulations, sample tasks and control groups.


The third level of training effectiveness assessment concerns behavior in the scope of which there is a change in the proceedings. It involves using in practice the knowledge and skills acquired. This stage involves difficulties related to the measurement of effectiveness, changes in behavior can take place immediately as well as after a few months. The conditions for the change occurrence are:

  • occur to a person participating in the training, a desire to change themselves
  • the person must be aware of what to do and how;
  • the atmosphere in which a person works should be conducive to change;
  • any positive change should be rewarded


These are the final results obtained by a given person in training, they are related to such areas of the company's activity as: improving quality, reducing costs, increasing profits. The mere possession of knowledge is not sufficient for its use, it is necessary that there are appropriate conditions conducive to the use of newly acquired qualifications and skills by the person participating in the training. This stage is also the most important and the most difficult to investigate.

The CIPO model[edit]

The CIPO model also serves to assess the effectiveness of vocational training. The analysis is carried out on four levels:

  1. Context - at this stage, information about the current situation of the company, data on problems and needs as well as information about the ineffectiveness of individual activities are collected and transformed. Context analysis coincides with the training stage - identification of training needs.
  2. Outlays - information gathered at this level facilitates making decisions regarding techniques and the place of training.
  3. Process - at this level, the opinions of people participating in the training concerning its course as well as the organization itself are collected. The most frequently used method at this level is the training evaluation questionnaire.
  4. Results - the last level of evaluation is related to finding information about the actual consequences of the training.

Objectives of training effectiveness evaluation[edit]

  • Feedback

Feedback is a supplement to the learning process, and for trainers it is an indication of the effectiveness of the methods used as well as evidence of the achievement of the set goals of the training. Thanks to the feedback, you can supervise the quality and course of the training.

  • Control

The control allows to determine how well conducted training is useful and how high its costs are. Controlling favors linking training policy with the goals of the organization.

  • Research

Evaluation of training is a research process in which knowledge about general principles and methods used in conducting training is extended. Research supports the improvement of techniques used to evaluate training.

Interference in the training process In most cases, the assessment affects how the training is perceived. It can have a significant impact on the way human resources are managed and rely on: - instructing the line manager to conduct measurements before the training as well as after the training - presenting the issues before the training to the participants - changing the trainers from individual departments and improving their cooperation.

The evaluation of the training results is valuable only when the results obtained are the basis for improving the current situation. The extent to which the results of the evaluation process are used depends on four factors:

  1. The relationship between the results obtained and the decisions to be taken.
  2. The quality of communication between people who carry out the research and those who benefit from the results of the assessment.
  3. Reliability of the assessment.
  4. Involvement of interest groups in the entire assessment process.

Increasing the probability of using the results of training effectiveness assessment can be obtained in the following way:

  • Adjusting the presentation of the report to the characteristics of the persons who make decisions;
  • Using a direct presentation of results and answering questions appearing during it;
  • By involving representatives from various interest groups in the process of planning changes.