Effectiveness of training

From CEOpedia | Management online

Evaluation of training results is a necessary stage in training management in the company. The information obtained at this stage of the entire training process should be applied to a possible adjustment of activities. The basic function of the entire control process is the assessment of specific projects in order to get feedback on the effects of training or lack thereof.

Kirkpatrick's model

The entire training effectiveness assessment process is described by many models, the greater part of which is based on the determination of four or five levels of assessment. The best-known and most-used model was proposed by Kirkpatrick.


The first level of training evaluation is connected with the evaluation of participants' reactions to training. The assessment is made immediately after the training. It aims to examine the first impression about the training, what is the general opinion about the training and the leaders themselves. Questions addressed to the participants of the training are related to such issues as: satisfaction / dissatisfaction with the training, the level of achieving the set goals, the level of personal development, the organization of the training itself. Answers to these questions make it possible to determine whether the conditions in which the training was conducted and the methods used were appropriate. Obtained in this way, the information in most cases allows for the detection of technical mistakes made during the training and for their quick correction.


At this level, what new qualifications have been acquired by the participants of the training. The most effective testing method is testing competences, other also used methods are: knowledge tests, simulations, sample tasks and control groups.


The third level of training effectiveness assessment concerns behavior in the scope of which there is a change in the proceedings. It involves using in practice the knowledge and skills acquired. This stage involves difficulties related to the measurement of effectiveness, changes in behavior can take place immediately as well as after a few months. The conditions for the change occurrence are:

  • occur to a person participating in the training, a desire to change themselves
  • the person must be aware of what to do and how;
  • the atmosphere in which a person works should be conducive to change;
  • any positive change should be rewarded


These are the final results obtained by a given person in training, they are related to such areas of the company's activity as: improving quality, reducing costs, increasing profits. The mere possession of knowledge is not sufficient for its use, it is necessary that there are appropriate conditions conducive to the use of newly acquired qualifications and skills by the person participating in the training. This stage is also the most important and the most difficult to investigate.

The CIPO model

The CIPO model also serves to assess the effectiveness of vocational training. The analysis is carried out on four levels:

  1. Context - at this stage, information about the current situation of the company, data on problems and needs as well as information about the ineffectiveness of individual activities are collected and transformed. Context analysis coincides with the training stage - identification of training needs.
  2. Outlays - information gathered at this level facilitates making decisions regarding techniques and the place of training.
  3. Process - at this level, the opinions of people participating in the training concerning its course as well as the organization itself are collected. The most frequently used method at this level is the training evaluation questionnaire.
  4. Results - the last level of evaluation is related to finding information about the actual consequences of the training.

Objectives of training effectiveness evaluation

  • Feedback

Feedback is a supplement to the learning process, and for trainers it is an indication of the effectiveness of the methods used as well as evidence of the achievement of the set goals of the training. Thanks to the feedback, you can supervise the quality and course of the training.

  • Control

The control allows to determine how well conducted training is useful and how high its costs are. Controlling favors linking training policy with the goals of the organization.

  • Research

Evaluation of training is a research process in which knowledge about general principles and methods used in conducting training is extended. Research supports the improvement of techniques used to evaluate training.

Interference in the training process In most cases, the assessment affects how the training is perceived. It can have a significant impact on the way human resources are managed and rely on: - instructing the line manager to conduct measurements before the training as well as after the training - presenting the issues before the training to the participants - changing the trainers from individual departments and improving their cooperation.

The evaluation of the training results is valuable only when the results obtained are the basis for improving the current situation. The extent to which the results of the evaluation process are used depends on four factors:

  1. The relationship between the results obtained and the decisions to be taken.
  2. The quality of communication between people who carry out the research and those who benefit from the results of the assessment.
  3. Reliability of the assessment.
  4. Involvement of interest groups in the entire assessment process.

Increasing the probability of using the results of training effectiveness assessment can be obtained in the following way:

  • Adjusting the presentation of the report to the characteristics of the persons who make decisions;
  • Using a direct presentation of results and answering questions appearing during it;
  • By involving representatives from various interest groups in the process of planning changes.

Advantages of effectiveness of training evaluation

  • The evaluation of training results provides a comprehensive look at the effectiveness of the training program, allowing for a better understanding of the training objectives and the areas where changes may be needed.
  • It helps to measure the costs and benefits of training and identify where changes need to be made.
  • It helps to identify any problems or issues that may have arisen during the training program and rectify them.
  • It allows for assessment of the trainee’s performance and their progress.
  • It enables the organization to measure the ROI of the training program and determine whether it is worth further investment.
  • It helps to identify areas for improvement and develop new training strategies.
  • It helps to evaluate the effectiveness of training methods and techniques used.
  • It helps to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the training program and identify any areas of improvement.

Limitations to effectiveness of training

One of the limitations of the effectiveness of training is the lack of proper evaluation. Without proper evaluation, it is difficult to assess whether the training program is achieving its objectives. Additionally, the following can limit the effectiveness of training:

  • The lack of proper planning of the training program can lead to ineffective implementation and no measurable results.
  • Poor communication of the training objectives can lead to confusion and lack of motivation.
  • The lack of appropriate resources can hinder the effectiveness of the training program.
  • Inadequate or inappropriate resources can lead to ineffective training and a lack of results.
  • The lack of an appropriate follow-up or feedback can lead to a lack of results and a lack of accountability.
  • The lack of proper assessment of the training program can lead to an improper evaluation of the results.
  • Poor implementation of the training program can lead to ineffective training and a lack of measurable results.

Other approaches related to Effectiveness of training

The following approaches can be used to assess the effectiveness of training:

  • Measuring Learning: This approach measures the amount of knowledge gained by training participants. It can include pre - and post-training tests, surveys, and interviews to gauge changes in skills and knowledge.
  • Measuring Behavior: This approach evaluates the behavior of trainees after the training program. It can include observing workplace performance, feedback from supervisors, and customer surveys.
  • Measuring Results: This approach measures the impact of training on organizational goals. It can include analyzing financial data, such as cost savings, or measuring customer satisfaction.
  • Measuring Return on Investment (ROI): This approach measures the cost of the training program and the resulting benefits. It can include calculating the cost of training and the expected benefit.

In summary, the effectiveness of training can be assessed in four main ways: measuring learning, measuring behavior, measuring results and measuring return on investment. Each approach can provide valuable feedback on the success of the training program and can be used to inform decision-making around training initiatives.

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