External motivation is understood as what is done for or for people to motivate them. This includes rewards such as wage increases, praise or advancement and penalties, disciplinary action, suspension of bonuses or reprimands.Three further groups of needs decide on the quality of the work performed:
- needs related to self-determination, self-fulfillment, determination of own identity, which can be achieved precisely through work, especially its high quality,
- needs related to maintaining control over one's own situation, by striving for independence, financial independence, as well as in the form of protection against possible events that may be a source of threats to the stability of the situation,
- needs related to protection and diversification of self-esteem, implemented and through the participation of an individual in an organization whose goals are considered important, by taking responsibility (need to be meaningful).
A characteristic feature of external motivation is that it is controllable, so it should gain more and more levels. Otherwise, changes should be made to the actions taken regarding the external motivation of employees in such a way as to increase the achieved motivation results. in addition, external motivation can be divided into:
- external regulations - rewards and penalties
- introjection - internalization
External motivation is characterized by the fact that joining activities is caused by external pressure. A characteristic element of external motivation is a wide group of prizes and penalties, and thus with the official and accurate announcement of units with the requirements of obtaining them. Employees, being aware of the rules, take on the tasks to get the prize and the recognition of the employer, as well as avoid punishment. Only the desire to win the prize will be subordinated to undertaking the employee's actions. The most important step in making a system of rewards and punishments is to get to know the organization of needs and the ambitions and goals of employees. Depending on the unit, prizes will have a positive effect on some, and not on others. That is why it is so important to analyze the behavior of employees. The prizes awarded may be in monetary or prestigious form. The type of reward provided by the employer for achieving an objective by the employee is very significant. Before the employee takes action to obtain it, the employee analyzes the profitability of the effort and time spent. Therefore, the award, which is very effective, encourages the employee to implement specific actions. The employee may feel negative or positive emotions, being a motivator or demotivator to take action.
Disadvantages of applying penalties and prizes:
- Unequal relations
- Disciplined employees
- Exclusion of reasonable task-taking
- Deprivation of employees for work
- They affect the performance of only those tasks that benefit
- They influence the perception of taking actions from a personal initiative as negative and not very sensible
External motivation is defined as a less valuable type of motivation, yet it takes an active part in the life and work of every human being. External motivation is triggered by positive or negative external factors. It is an action to gain external benefits or to avoid losses or regrets. This type of motivation is often considered worse, but it is important that these activities are also rewarding for employees. External motivation is conditioned by genetic factors, education, authorities, and personal experiences that can affect the individual's dominance. There is also a pessimistic attribution style. The unit assigns failures to its own internal characteristics, while it believes that success, achievement is conditioned by external factors. External motivation affects people by stimulating their desire to engage in a task to gain success through their own behavior.
Features of external motivation:
- comes from outside (it is obtained from others)
- It needs control
- it is influenced
- it is easier to manage
- you can easily get someone discouraged
- it expects incentives
The bonus is part of the salary, thanks to which the employer mobilizes employees to perform activities that are part of the company's plan, and also activates them to extract the best features from them, including: commitment, efficiency, creativity, creativity. The bonus is a very strong element motivating employees to work properly and efficiently. The scope of awarding a bonus, which is a part of the pay, includes the following elements:
- The result of the work done
- Short-term plan
- The quality of the task
- Anticipation of behavior
- Consider diligence and integrity
- Recognition of creativity and reliability
External motivation affecting employees affects by causing two extreme emotions and feelings. They are designed to stimulate the employee to achieve the intended tasks and goals. This is done by using positive motivation, whose actions are related to motivating employees by rewarding them: rewards, bonuses, etc. In this way, they evoke positive emotions and positive incentives to work. The opposite is negative motivation, which is aimed at evoking fear and anxiety in employees by not achieving the employer's goals. Employees are thus afraid of punishment, loss of position, lowering salary, receiving a warning.
- Plant, E. A., & Devine, P. G. (1998). Internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. Journal of personality and social psychology, 75(3), 811.
- Barbuto Jr, J. E. (2005). Motivation and transactional, charismatic, and transformational leadership: A test of antecedents. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 11(4), 26-40.
- Schmidt, R., Boraie, D., & Kassabgy, O. (1996). Foreign language motivation: Internal structure and external connections. University of Hawai'i Working Papers in English as a Second Language 14 (2).