|Methods and techniques|
Motivation to work is creating a certain balance of forces that will induce the employee to behave in the manner required by the employer. It is therefore a process of conscious and deliberate impact on employees by providing means and possibilities to meet their expectations in such a way that both sides (employers and employees) will benefit.
As a result, this impact should trigger a positive attitude of employees to tasks that belong to their duties and, above all, to achieve significant results in the work they perform. Motivating is therefore not only an important determinant of the mutual benefits of cooperation between the manager and the employee, but it is also a complex and involving task set for the employer to achieve these benefits. It can therefore be said that motivating is a personalized approach of a manager to an employee, reading into his system of needs and expectations, but also creating a worker's adapted working conditions as well as choosing the optimal or most-suited way of targeting. Thanks to all these elements, the work that the employee performs will become the basis for achieving the company's goals. Because the concept of motivation hides a few basic concepts, and therefore everything that evokes, sustains and directs the behavior of people, it should be said that understanding the sense of motivation is of great importance for managers because their activities focus on working with people as well as people. A very important issue in the attempt to define the concept of motivation is the fact that motivation is not just the motor force of human actions and behaviors. Motivation is one of the most important but also an essential factor in the increase of work efficiency. You can therefore use the formula that describes the effects of work:
Know * Can * Want => Work efficiency
From the above formula it is clear that the effects of the job depend on the ability, capability and human skills supported by the appropriate motivation of the will, as well as the willingness to act.
Definitions of motivation
The concept of motivation often occurs in literature, thanks to which a wide range of definitions of this concept can be gathered. Some of the definitions are:
- "Motivation - influencing the behavior of the subject of action through stimuli, which will be transformed into motives."
- "Motivation - a set of forces and factors that stimulate and support a person in behaviors aimed at achieving specific goals. These forces are needs, drives, instincts, aspirations, as well as states of tension - called the mechanisms of the human body. "
- "Motivation - is the factor that triggers the following chain of reactions: its beginning is felt needs, causing specific demands or shaping goals, these in turn lead to increased psychological tension (associated with unfulfilled desires), and consequently to take actions aimed at achieving the assumed goals. "
- "Motivating is a process of conscious and deliberate impact on the motives of people's behavior by creating means and possibilities to implement their systems of values and expectations (goals of action) to achieve the motivating goal (this applies to the so-called Employee motivation). "
- "Motivate - a thing that stimulates a person to act. The motivation process includes:
- a) identification of unmet needs,
- b) defining goals that meet the needs
- c) causing the action that is necessary to meet the identified needs. "
Considering the above definitions, one can accept three important assumptions about human behavior:
- it is caused by the influence of specific factors
- it is always associated with a purpose
- you can interact with them
Models of positive and negative motivating in an enterprise
- traditional motivating model - was proposed by Taylor. He stated that man is comfortable by nature, shows no inventiveness at work, works slowly and laziness. This assumption did not take into account the complexity of human nature. The disadvantage of the model is to bring motivation to the group of production workers whose work is simple and very heavy. Rapid technical progress has contributed to greater complexity and complexity at work. This requires employees to be ingenious, independent and responsible. In spite of this, these motivational models are still used today, which are based on Taylor's assumptions
- model of interpersonal relations - it was created thanks to research results stating that interpersonal relations are important in motivating people to work. An important factor is the employee's usefulness and the importance of his work in achieving the goals of the entire organization. The manager's role is to give employees the feeling that they are needed as well as clearly appreciating their work. This model has critical remarks, however, it broadens the set of important incentives used to motivate the employee crew, which is improved in many motivational concepts. Currently, employees use intangible forms of motivation, which are based on a larger part of the assumptions of the described model
- human resources model - focuses on the complexity of the problem of motivation.What is important here are external stimuli, i.e. pay, relationships with people, developing independence of work and values resulting from work, as well as professional development and career. Employees should see how their work makes sense and whether it brings them closer to the purpose of the organization, they should also have a visible impact on the methods and ways, but also the effects of their work as well as make all decisions and fully responsible for the work they perform. It all makes employees become very active and want to work for the good of the whole organization. The most important factors here are the implementation of professional qualifications, skills and predispositions of employees in the most appropriate way and mobilization for creative action. It is emphasized and appreciated in motivating the great role of the various values of work itself.
Theories of positive and negative motivation
A number of motivation theories can be indicated. Based on them, you can construct an incentive system. The most important theories are:
- Behavior modification theory. Human reflexes can be divided into unconditional and conditional (see Pavlov's theory). It was assumed that conditioned reflexes through frequent repetition can become unconditional. Therefore, the motivation will be to teach proper behaviors and not teach undesirable behaviors.
- The theory of drive force reduction. People's behavior depends on habits, drive power and the presence of a stimulus. The power of the drive pushes the man to accomplish the task, and the habit motivates him to a certain manner of implementation. The stimulus, understood here as the perception of the effect of action, "pulls" a man to a particular behavior.
- Theory of social learning. It is similar to the theory of reduction of propulsive force, but the element that strengthens people's actions is not biological habits but observation of other people's behavior. People self-regulate their behavior based on the patterns observed in the environment.
- Theory of social learning. Man deciding on a particular behavior takes into account a number of internal factors (habits, skills, knowledge) and external (commands, regulations, surroundings). Internal factors are perceived by him as dependent, while external factors as independent. The greater the share of internal factors, the more man himself determines his behavior. It gives him greater satisfaction.
- Theory of internal motivation. There are external and internal motivators (as in the previous theory). The use of external motivators can cause internal weakness. Therefore, people with strong internal motivation should not be excessively motivated externally, because it can cause the opposite effect. In turn, people with poor internal motivation should be pointed out to internal motivators that will strengthen it.
- Theory of expectations. People achieve good results at work, if they understand and accept their tasks, have skills and resources to implement them, the expected reward is attractive (it is something they care about) and the size of this reward is appropriate to the workload.
- Maslow's theory. Maslow has developed a hierarchy of human needs, indicating that satisfying higher levels is possible only after satisfying the lower levels. These levels are needs: physiological, security, belonging, respect and self-fulfillment.
- ERG theory. Another hierarchy of needs that points to three levels of hierarchy: existence, affiliation and development. Indicates, unlike Maslow, that these levels can be implemented simultaneously.
- Herzberg's two-factor theory. He pointed to the existence of higher-order factors - motivational - and basic - hygiene. Motivational factors include: recognition, promotion, development, responsibility, and hygiene: working conditions, interpersonal relations, salaries, safety, style of management. Motivating is done with motivational factors, but their effectiveness depends on the fulfillment of hygiene factors. Hygiene factors are perceived by employees as natural working conditions, hence their possible impact on motivation to work is short-lived.
- Theory of achievements. It takes into account the needs of achievement (willingness to achieve an effective goal), affiliation (contacts with people) and authorities (influencing others and control).
- Theory of X and Y. It distinguishes two attitudes of people. Theory X - work is treated as coercion, people avoid work and responsibility. They want to receive clear directives. They value safety. Management must use penalties to force people to work. The theory of Y assumes, however, that work is the natural behavior of a human being. People are involved in the implementation of tasks, they take responsibility.
Principles of effective motivating to work
- the principle of proportionality - assumes proportionality of remuneration for the performance of the task and incurred expenditures and the results obtained,
- the principle of positive motivation - says that positive motivation to work is more effective than punishing, and remunerated actions will be made,
- principle of differentiation - criteria of remuneration should be based on the system of norms and values recognized by the participants of the organization, they should not be the same for all professional groups,
- the principle of a short time distance - it assumes that the remuneration has the greater impact on the results of work, the smaller the interval between the action and the payment on this account,
- the principle of comprehensiveness and regularity - this means that effective motivation should cover the entire complex of impacts adapted to the expectations of employees,
- the principle of simplicity and transparency of the incentive system - the motivating system should be simple and understandable for employees and accepted by them,
- the principle of internalising the organization's goals - every employee should know what behavior is necessary for the organization to achieve its goals, high efficiency of employees occurs when their value system coincides with what is of value to the organization,
- the principle of taking into account the motive of self-realization - the sense of value, importance, usefulness, mission of the work performed may be equally important for the employee, it is a type of remuneration motivating much more than money,
- the principle of preservation of incentive thresholds - this principle says that in order to increase the effort of employees at work, their wages should also be increased,
- The principle of a legal agreement - consists in accepting the provisions included in the remuneration system by employees and the employer.
- Baker, T. B., Piper, M. E., McCarthy, D. E., Majeskie, M. R., & Fiore, M. C. (2004). Addiction motivation reformulated: an affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychological review, 111(1), 33.
- Lockwood, P., Jordan, C. H., & Kunda, Z. (2002). Motivation by positive or negative role models: regulatory focus determines who will best inspire us. Journal of personality and social psychology, 83(4), 854.
- Cameron, J., Banko, K. M., & Pierce, W. D. (2001). Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues. The Behavior Analyst, 24(1), 1-44.