Organization of production

Organization of production
See also

Organization of production involves coordinated implementation of various processes i.e.: planning of operations, operative scheduling and quantity control. In particular, the manufacturing process consists of:

  • research and development processes, including: the preparation of the production, supply and training of staff,
  • manufacturing processes, which are divided into:
    • manufacturing process including the implementation of the basic operations: technology, control, transport, storage, assembly, and manufacturing services,
    • secondary manufacturing process associated with the management of technological equipment, maintenance, operation management tool, energy, storage of raw materials and finished products as well as external transport,
    • service process involve administrative actions, security, safety and cleaning,
  • distribution processes and customer service, responsible for sales and efficient service.

Classification of production processes

Fig.1. Organization of production forms

Due to the wide variety of industrial products and technologies, basic manufacturing processes are classified according to the following criteria:

According to continuity of the time processes are divided into:

  • Discrete, process may be interrupted after each operation without compromising the quality of the final product, these processes are typical of the electrical industry, automotive, steel, textile, printing,
  • Continuous, in which product of labour goes without interrupting across all the steps and phases of the process in a forced order of operations, they are suitable for heavy chemical industry, cement, power and heat, the petrochemical industry,

According to type of technology used:

  • Acquisition or mining of natural resources of the land, water, air. Most comes from mining of raw materials such as coal, iron ore, crude oil,
  • Processing processes - leading to the transformation of physical and chemical properties of raw materials and obtain completely new materials. The products of these processes are often subjected to further processing or machining. A typical example of these processes is metallurgy, thermal power electricity, processing of agricultural raw materials,
  • Machining processes - entail a change in shape and surface, characteristics or internal structure of the material metal, wood, plastic by grinding, polishing, painting, cutting, laser machining, welding;
  • Assembly processes - combining the product of two or more components, and bring it to a state ready for use, for example: twisting, crimping, welding, riveting;
  • Removal processes - carried out in the renovation and repair of technical equipment to replace worn parts or to repair it;
  • Natural and biotechnological processes - this group includes processes involving the use of living organisms or biologically active cells to produce desired compounds, and other structures, as well as for the disposal of harmful substances in terms of structures and excessive pollution irreversible consumption of energy (for example, fermentation, souring and corrosion of metals, Wood decay)

According to organizational characteristics of processes:

  • Cell production -all partial processes of all products produced are done in one cell along with the accepted range of cooperative relations with other units.
  • Manufactured product -all operations and processes necessary for the implementation of the product regardless of the production cells in which they are carried out, and what is the scope of cooperative relations with other cells involved in the production of production of the product,
  • Group technology -implementation of a complex process plant for the whole family simple or complex production programs. Production assortment, can undergo groups of similar treatment processes as part or group of similar assembly of final products consisting a greater number of parts, sub-assemblies and assemblies.

In addition, each process is considered both in terms of production cells and in terms of the product:

  • simple process - relates to a simple product of the manufacturing process, the individual parts (element), assuming that it is executed within the same type of technology,
  • complex process - involves the production of a simple device performed within two or more kinds of technology, that is within two or more phases of the process,

According to the means used, processes are divided into:

  • Manual processes - operations are performed with the use of hand tools and appliances
  • Machine processes - operations are performed with the use of machinery and mechanical appliances powered by electric or other sources of energy,
  • Instrument processes - are physico-chemical and are used in specially adapted to these processes rooms, they operate in continuous or discrete actions and usually concern such reactions as: reduction, neutralization, evaporation, burning, melting, mixing, filtration, centrifugation.
  • Automated processes - done by rigid and flexible systems (FMS),
  • Computer-aided (CAM) and computer-integrated (CIM) processes.

See also:


  • Askin, R. G., & Standridge, C. R. (1993). Modeling and analysis of manufacturing systems. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Chase, R. B., Aquilano, N. J., & Jacobs, F. R. (1995). Production and operations management: manufacturing and services.
  • Cochran, D. S., Arinez, J. F., Duda, J. W., & Linck, J. (2002). A decomposition approach for manufacturing system design. Journal of manufacturing systems, 20(6), 371-389.
  • Gunasekaran, A., Martikainen, T., & Yli-Olli, P. (1993). Flexible manufacturing systems: An investigation for research and applications. European journal of operational research, 66(1), 1-26.