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Teleworking called also as mobile work, e-work, distance work or flexible work is an example of so-called not-typical form of employment. This term emerged from the first time in the early sixties of the 20-th century in works of an American economist-J.M.Nilles, who indicated advantages of teleworking. At the beginning of the nineties European Commission initiated investigation seeing huge potential of this kind of employment.

The most common activities in teleworking include:

  • language translation
  • doing surveys
  • computer graphic works
  • web design
  • accountancy
  • programming
  • doing a cost analysis
  • storage and data processing
  • creating data base
  • internet marketing
  • direct marketing
  • telemarketing
  • customer service
  • texts editing

Legal aspects of teleworking

Work in a form of teleworking is done regularly off the working place and it has to be evidenced by the use of Information and Communication Technology. Both an employee and an employer have a possibility to be in touch with each other.

An employer is obliged:

  • to provide a teleworker with all the necessary equipment to perform the given work
  • to cover expenses of the installation system, service, insurance and its operation

An employee is obliged to do the same tasks which concern all the workers (Article 100 k.p.). He is also bound to:

  • give all the necessary information that enables to communicate by means of electronic devices
  • confirm on writing that all the rules of personal data protection and its adherence was conveyed to each worker.

Forms of teleworking

Considering the working place teleworking can be divided into:

  • home teleworking, that is done at home and during which a contact with an employer is possible with the use of a mobile phone, an email or a video talking
  • teleworking that is done outside the working place but not at employee’s but in special arranged buildings, for instance the telecentre
  • mobile teleworking, that is done in places where a worker in a given moment is present
  • while travelling a teleworker is in contact with an employer by means of communications


  • Baruch, Y. (2000). Teleworking: benefits and pitfalls as perceived by professionals and managers. New Technology, Work and Employment, 15(1), 34-49.
  • Chapman, A. J., Sheehy, N. P., Heywood, S., Dooley, B., & Collins, S. C. (1995). The organizational implications of teleworking. International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 10, 229-248.
  • Gray, M., Hudson, N., & Gordon, G. (1996). Teleworking explained. Long Range Planning, 6(29), 910.
  • Pratt, J. H. (1984). Home teleworking: A study of its pioneers. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 25(1), 1-14.

Author: Piotr Pierzchała