Types of knowledge
|Types of knowledge|
There are four phases in the processing of knowledge: Data -> Information -> Knowledge -> Wisdom
The concept of knowledge management is often formulated in a very concise way (encyclopedic, brief) or it is defined in a fuzzy way without exposing the essence of management. The basic problem of knowledge management is the difficulty in understanding specific aspects of the human thought process. The authors distinguish, among others, the following features of knowledge:
- knowledge concerns beliefs and expectations,
- knowledge concerns activities,
- knowledge concerns meanings.
Components of knowledge
They distinguished two basic components of knowledge:
- hidden knowledge - used every day by people, but difficult to grasp in the form of formal records, the essence of which can not be expressed by words,
- knowledge available - which can be systematized and presented with the help of words, numbers, characters or symbols, and thus conveyed to another person.
The interaction between explicit / formal knowledge and the hidden knowledge is the basic way to multiply knowledge. Knowledge in this case can have the following forms:
- Externalizing knowledge - revealing hidden knowledge, mixing experiences of individuals, groups, so that others can learn it and improve it
- Knowledge specialization - acquiring knowledge, supporting cooperation with people who already have such knowledge and watching
- Internalizing knowledge - using explicit knowledge and transforming it into default knowledge, learning and using knowledge in action
- Combinations of knowledge - the enrichment of overt knowledge.
Classification of knowledge
Another classification of human knowledge is also presented, distinguishing four criteria for division:
- The criterion of diversity, the criterion "what do I know?", Which has been collected and is stored by the memory of the individualr the memory of a group of people
- factual knowledge, also known as "knowledge about" (answers to the questions: what ?, where? who?) - it is operational knowledge, easy to convey, that is, which concerns facts describing objects, events and processes. It is a knowledge of the state of affairs. Describes the state of the considered reality.
- procedural knowledge, also called "know how" - algorithmic, heuristic. Refers to methods and ways to solve problems. It is knowledge acquired through experience, it concerns everyday practices, including professional ones. Most of the resources of this knowledge are hidden knowledge.
- semantic knowledge, also called "know what it means" - based on the meaning (meaning) of terms, concepts and words. It is the knowledge necessary in the processes of communication, as well as human thoughts. This knowledge is included in dictionary definitions and interpretations.
- normative knowledge - defining norms and patterns, tradition. These are patterns of action, ways of thinking, which we mostly draw from the past .
- structural knowledge, also called "knowledge why" - regarding the relationship between facts, processes and events. It is knowledge related to the cultural system and the strategy of, for example, the company - knowledge is based on understanding the motives of its operation. Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, used to say that true knowledge is the knowledge of causes.
- Generality criterion
- theoretical knowledge - built on the basis of theorems, theories, etc.,
- empirical knowledge - based on observation and experience of own and other people,
- control knowledge - which is a synthesis of theoretical and empirical knowledge,
- The criterion of diversity
- certain knowledge - based on facts and proven rights,
- uncertain knowledge - only partially confirmed by facts and rights,
- hypothetical knowledge - based on assumptions
- ignorance - total lack of knowledge in a given area,
- Criterion of the level of closeness to a given field
- specific knowledge - directly related to a given field,
- abstract knowledge - model, general
- interdisciplinary knowledge - using a combination of many fields of knowledge to describe and analyze the phenomenon.
- Markus, L. M. (2001). Toward a theory of knowledge reuse: Types of knowledge reuse situations and factors in reuse success. Journal of management information systems, 18(1), 57-93.
- Chua, A. (2001). Relationship between the types of knowledge shared and types of communication channels used. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, 2, 1-3.Chua, A. (2001). Relationship between the types of knowledge shared and types of communication channels used. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, 2, 1-3.
- Blumberg, P. (2009). Maximizing learning through course alignment and experience with different types of knowledge'. Innovative Higher Education, 34(2), 93-103.