Management by projects

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Management by projects
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Management by projects - a set of activities including planning, decision making, organization and leadership, i.e. managing people and controlling, used with the intention of achieving the objectives of various projects in an efficient and effective manner.

Management by projects has become today a very popular management tool used in organizations. By using of this concept managers helps the company to adapt better to changing operating conditions and uncertain environment especially during its dynamic change.

Project management techniques allow to efficiently direct the resources of the company (due to rational decision making and efficient implementation of projects). When organization is managed by projects, these techniques are used continuously, consciously and whole business is conducted as if it was a projects. Therefore, the management of the projects is a powerful instrument, which is used in the entire system of management in the company.

Planning in the company managed by projects

Fig.1. Management by projects
  • Project planning – involves planning of realization of individual projects, setting objectives of time, quality, cost and preparing resources necessary to the implementation.
  • Multi-project planning deals with groups of projects important for the realization of various strategies of the company. Portfolio of projects is prepared using the resources of the company to effectively implement its strategic and operational objectives.

Organizing in the company managed by projects

  • Grouping tasks and resources in the company managed by projects managers should bear in mind the high relative position of the projects in the hierarchy of the organization.

The company managed by projects builds a flexible organization structure and manages processes of unusual and innovative character.

Leadership in the company managed by projects

  • Employee motivation (work in the project team should be attractive and interesting)
  • Training in the field of instruments and techniques used in project management is necessary, since these tools are used in everyday work.
  • Training on working in project teams in order to increase labour productivity in dynamic project groups.

Culture in a company managed by projects

  • Adaptability to changes
  • Ability to work in a team.
  • Tolerance for individual errors.
  • Good communication.
  • A sense of collective responsibility for the project.
  • Responsibility of employees.
  • Project management instruments are essential tools for the everyday job.


  • Gareis, R. (1991). Management by projects: the management strategy of the "new" project-oriented company. International Journal of Project Management, 9(2), 71-76.
  • Gareis, R. (1989). Management by projects: the management approach for the future. International Journal of Project Management, 7(4), 243-249.
  • Hamilton, A. (1997). Management by projects: achieving success in a changing world. Thomas Telford.
  • Piwowar-Sulej, K. (2013). Human Capital Development via Management by Projects. Edukacja Ekonomistów i Menedżerów, 3(29), 143-154.
  • Turner, R., Clark, F. A., & Lord, A. (1990). The Impact of Management by Projects on Organisation, Systems and People. Henley The Management College.