Organizational techniques

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Basic methods and techniques for improve of the organization involve : analysis and recording of information (information technology, interviews, surveys, timing, registration of working day, the study of working methods, process diagrams, work-flow diagrams, Ishikawa diagram) and methods of project management (schedules, teams, network diagrams, budgeting, performance indicators).

Organizational techniques generally allow for improvement of all work processes. They can be divided in two main groups:

  • par excellence organizational techniques - the study of methods of work, work measurement, standardization of work, job evaluation, coordination of work processes in time, the organization of work processes in the space, value analysis, research and organizing office work.
  • techniques borrowed from other sciences - psycho-sociological methods, ergonomic methods, operational research, network methods, econometric methods, computer methods, heuristic methods.

Study of working methods

The study of working methods deals with improving the operation of all types of physical and mental work, and includes the systematic recording, analysis, critical evaluation of existing or proposed ways of doing work, and the design and implementation of the most effective methods. The key technique used in the study of the working methods are direct observation, considered the most reliable way to collect information about the analysed process.

Study of working methods purpose

  • Streamlining production processes and ways of doing work,
  • Improve the spatial layout of the workshop or factory,
  • Saving human effort and reduce fatigue,
  • Better use of material and labour,
  • Creating a more favourable physical working conditions.

Main steps of method

  • Selecting the object and purpose of the study. Examples of research objectives are: increase of production capacity, improve quality, reduce costs, increase productivity, investment savings, et al.. Metrics used to define the goals: economic, technological and psychological
  • The collection of information. Sources of information: organizational records, the results of the application of mapping techniques (process charts, material flowcharts, work flow, process steps, spatial flow diagram), audiovisual recording, timing, snapshot observations, interviews, questionnaires, direct observation
  • The analysis and the search for solutions. Sheet of critical evaluation and analysis is used, which contains 32 fields, corresponding to the four phases of analysis and 8 examined factors. Phases/questions used in critical evaluation and analysis: the facts - how is it? factual justification - why is that? finding alternative solutions - how else could it be? selection of the optimal variant - how it should be done? Factors of critical evaluation and analysis: the purpose of the work (what has been achieved?), Material (what was done?), Product design (what was done?), The sequence (when done?), Place (where it was done?)

equipment (what, what was done?), how to perform (haw it has been done?), person (who did?)

  • Designing the optimal solution: Manager must take into account the aims of the reorganization and the ability to achieve its goals, in the context of the necessary inputs (cost of improvement). The most important reorganization costs are the costs of research and design, the cost of purchasing new materials, the cost of purchase and installation of machinery and equipment, the cost of construction and expansion of facilities, the cost of a break in service, the cost of training and instruction, lower labour costs, and others.
  • Implementation of the project in practice: must include, among others, overcoming the resistance of workers against changes, project management, etc.

Measuring and standardization of work time

Measuring time is part of the research work consists in measuring and calculating the time required to perform certain activities in work processes. Recording time leads to determine time-consuming activities and enables the detection and elimination of useless time. The purpose of measuring time is to survey the work carried out in the time-consuming process, the development of norms of time for the routine activities and the calculation of the technical standards of the time.

Standardization of working time is a collection of methods and techniques to determine the standards and norms of labour in time. This collection is divided into two basic groups of methods:

  • summary methods - (estimate-experimental, statistical, comparative)
  • analytical methods (measurement and calculation).

The standard outlines the work effort required to perform the work tasks. In practice following are used:

  • time standards specifying the amount of time required to perform a given task or unit of work product (eh 20 minutes per item, 30 minutes per ton, etc.);
  • efficiency standards (number) indicating the number of units required to achieve a product in a specific unit of time (3 pieces per hour or work shift, this is the inverse of the norm of time
  • service standards - defining the number of units (objects) allocated to support one employee or team of employees working in multi-service system,
  • stocking standards (standards of employment) as the number of employees required for the operation of one or more devices (used in metallurgy, chemical processes, apparatus), or to perform a particular job in a particular organizational unit.

Value analysis technique

Value analysis is the "... system consisting of techniques whose primary goal is to effectively identify unnecessary costs (...), techniques of particular relevance to"... increase the efficiency of identifying and solving different problems. "

The basic features of the value analysis of the organization, which is a variant of classical analysis, include consideration of the subject tests as system functional testing and analysis of the total cost of the system, maximizing the value as a basic criterion for rationalization and interdisciplinary team. At the core of this method lies a few conceptual categories, such as: system, function, cost and value system. The system is considered as a complex of interrelated elements due to their functions and created to meet the specific needs of the external environment.

Job evaluation

Job evaluation, is located at the junction of the organizing and motivating function. It is a process which aims to assess the difficulty of different work positions and professions. Job evaluation is a tool that allows to design tariff systems. Initially, job evaluation was based on intuition and general knowledge of the staff engaged in the assessment, development only in 1916 by Ch. Bedaux created first analytical point method of job evaluation and initiated the development of an analytical job evaluation. Modern methods of job evaluation is based on the so-called. Geneva scheme. It defines a set of universal criteria for assessing the difficulty of work, which include: mental demands, physical demands, responsibilities, working environment

Coordinating work in space and time

Spatial organization of work is the rationalization process, used especially in production and economization of business enterprises. It is expressed in a specific mutual ordering of plant facilities, due to the chosen goal.. Its essence boils down to standardization and optimization of the surface distribution of jobs due to: the maximum reduction of road transport, minimizing the number of means of transport and transport operations, the best use of space and minimizing the risk of accidents. The main criterion for spatial distribution of organizational positions is to minimize the cost of transport between workstations and space optimization.

Coordinating the work processes in time. Coordination is involves identification of the key components necessary to achieve the desired result, in sufficient quantity, quality and at the right time. The task of coordinating of work processes while ensuring compliance is the interaction between the various stakeholders of organizations. It harmonizes the individual sections of the performance of a specific task, team agree on actions carried out by a few individuals in time and space. Currently, the following methods of coordination are used: Adamiecki schedules, Gantt charts, esograms, operations research, networking methods and LOB method.

Other organizational techniques and methods

Streamlining of administrative and office work. The implementation of improvements on the workplace is usually associated with the following specific techniques and methods: survey of work processes and information processes, study the layout of rooms, standardization. The study involves most often: load job, work process, the distribution of activities over time, the order of operations, type of activity, technology jobs, job performance measures, proper relationships with other positions, as a work-flow, the distance traversed in the context of their work, frequency of connections between cells and workplaces, difficulty of office work, labour intensive administration and office work, the size of staffing required and actual, et al.

Social-psychological methods include a number of specific methods and techniques used in organizational studies, adopting various techniques of psychology and sociology. The most commonly used include: interview techniques (surveys, interviews, questionnaires, etc.) sociograms of Moreno, etc.

Ergonomic methods. These family forms a set of methods based on physiology and psychology for adaptation of workplace to worker. Some of them deserve special attention: methods for measuring of energy expenditure, the study of accidents at work, the experimental method and signal theory method.

Computer-based methods. This is a group of methods possible thanks to development of computer science. There are methods involving various computer systems, as well as a method born in computer science, but they are now widely used in various fields of science practical example are: flowcharts, decision tables, etc.

Operational research are a family of mathematical methods which involve finding optimal solutions for different - quantified - issues, including organizational problems. Operations research methods are based on the construction of mathematical models for specific problems and solving these models using suitable algorithms using electronic computing. The main methods used in the operations research are: linear programming, dynamic programming and the theory of queues.

Network methods are family of methods for the close spatial, temporal, and cost analysis in complex systems. They are based on graph theory. They are among the world's greatest scientific achievements of the twentieth century, They provide analysis of: organizing elements of the system, determine the shortest and longest flow depending on the network, optimization of network flows in relationships. The best-known network methods are: CPM. PERT, RAMPS.

Econometric methods. In this group there are both methods used in the economic analysis of the business such as: economic comparisons, and statistical methods especially useful in organizational diagnosis such as factor analysis, linear regression method, etc.

Morphological analysis - method developed by F. Zwieky belongs to the group of combinatorial methods, to stimulate the imagination. It uses logical and analytical method for seeking and achieving creative solutions through a systematic analysis of all possible solutions

References

  • Agarwal, R. D. (1982). Organization and management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Barnard, C. I., & Thompson, K. (2003). Organization and management: Selected papers (Vol. 7). Psychology Press.
  • Garvin, D. A. (1998). The processes of organization and management. MIT Sloan Management Review, 39(4), 33.
  • Kast, R. E., & Rosenzweig, J. E. (1974). Organization and management. New York.
  • Newman, W. H. (1950). Administrative action: The techniques of organization and management. Prentice-Hall.
  • Sloan School of Management | MIT OpenCourseWare website.