Change management model
|Change management model|
Change management is an essential competence of organization for continuous improvement, allowing transformation of it into a learning organization.
Change management is defined as the active shaping the future of the company, consisting of developing and maintaining the relationship between the objectives and resources and the needs of the market, according to their capabilities and uncertainties posed by the environment. Management must be based on the requirements of efficiency, i.e. must include appropriate methods (algorithms) for processes of control, design and implementation of changes in the company. They constitute a new, perfect conditions for the operation and collaboration with the environment.
Structure of the change management model
Organizations consist of mutually dependent systems. Managers cannot change one without changing others. Example: change in technology without changing the organizational structure will make the change undesired, and new technology will not be accepted. Recognition of the sources and causes of change and organizational capacity factors means that the process of change must be systemic in nature. Scheme of this system approach is presented in Fig 1.
This model focuses on main elements and the relations between them, it is a point of reference in defining the nature and extent of the changes, and allows the identification of management problems. The analysis must be conducted in many cross sections and in many directions, but special attention is needed to assess the match in the following areas: strategy and the environment, strategy and structure, strategy and management, and strategy and people.
Strategy and the environment
The purpose of the analysis and the process of making changes is to pursue strategic options to choose from. They will strengthen the position of the organization in the environment, and provides direction for the activities of the organization and in accordance with its resources and capabilities.
Strategy and structure
Organizational strategy can not be formulated solely in terms of external challenges. The strategic direction of the organization activities must also be supported by proper organizational structure. A fundamental change is frequently generated by the process of adaptation of resources and culture to the changing business environment. It should also be pointed out that the internal fit between organizational structure, management systems and human resources is crucial for achieving positive results of changes.
Changes in organizational structure stems from: the division of labour and authority within the organization, distribution of organizational power, the way the coordination and integration tasks, organizational behaviour and communication networks. Most often organizational structures changes to replace the flat hierarchical structures, with a limited number of middle-level managers. Role of the teamwork is strengthened.
Strategy and management systems
Management systems are understood as the technologies used, existing solutions, or established practices, as well as the different mechanisms used in the process of achieving the objectives and functioning of the organization.. And they remain in close connection with the strategy and with the other elements of organizational infrastructure.
Problems in this area include methods of acquiring information that is necessary to perform the tasks and decision-making in a new environment Choosing instruments that are necessary to achieve goals, and methods of assessing the effectiveness of employee. The most commonly undertaken reorganization in this area include changing of reward systems, new training programmes and performance appraisal systems, career development of employees, organization of time and space, new information systems and communications and improved customer service systems.
Strategy and people
No factor is as important as the changes in the work force. It should be a priority in preparing changes and the planning process. From the perspective of the employee, change is frequently defined as a serious disruption of existing patterns of behaviour and / or expectations. Understanding of human behaviour, both as a source of inertia to organizational changes and the stimulant for changes, can be used in efficient management in changing organizations.
Modelling reactions to change
The main objective of change is based on the vision of the future organizational structure, its systems and behavior of the employees. Concepts of organizational change, focus attention on people and their ability to adapt to new solutions, but also on the negative reactions and resistance to change. These reactions are caused by serious disruption of already existing values, practices and professional habits and expectations.
Experience shows that people are more likely to resist than to support the change. These negative reactions are protest against the destruction of the prior order, established patterns of organizational behaviour. The transformation of the mentality of the employees is the most difficult issue in the whole process.
Essence of the change process model
K. Lewin model
One of the most popular approaches to changes was formulated almost half a century ago by K. Lewin. He presents the change as a sequential three-phase process:
- Defrost - of existing patterns of behaviour, because of dissatisfaction with the current state of the organization and recognition of the human need to change. Managers use different tactics, depending on the identified resistance to change (for example, causing anxiety, which lies at the basis of the rejection of the existing methods of operations and the opening of the new solutions). This phase is also called the destabilization of the present state.
- Conversion involves going to the planned state organization. The result of this phase are employees with the new values, attitudes. Leader of the change shapes attitudes to follow new ways of action, or creates a situation that encourages independent learning and creating new attitudes and behaviours. While in the first case, the change of behaviour takes place in increments, the latter approach is evolutionary and it is supported by experimentation and training.
- Freezing of new attitudes and behaviours is necessary to maintain the change effects. It is a phase which consists in consolidating the new processes and procedures. It is associated with the supporting and rewarding employees for maintaining new behaviour.
Change process by B. Barnes
Stages of change process by B. Barnes:
- Recognition of the need and the type of change,
- Planning and implementation of the changes,
- Maintaining the pace and direction of change,
- Continuous improvement.
Examples of Change management model
- Kotter’s 8 Steps for Change Management:
This model, created by John Kotter in 1995, focuses on the importance of having a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing a vision and strategy, communicating the change vision, empowering others to act, creating short-term wins, consolidating gains and institutionalizing changes.
- ADKAR Model:
The ADKAR Model, created by Prosci in 1998, is focused on successful individual change and is composed of five components: Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement. This model is a great tool for managers and leaders to help employees understand and manage their personal change.
- The Burke-Litwin Change Model:
The Burke-Litwin Change Model, created by William Burke and George Litwin in 1992, is a 12-step model for understanding and managing organizational change. This model takes into account the context of the change and looks at both external and internal factors that influence the change process.
- The Change Curve Model:
The Change Curve Model, created by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross in 1969, identifies the stages of grief and loss associated with change. This model is useful for understanding the emotional impact of change on individuals and groups.
- The McKinsey 7-S Model:
The McKinsey 7-S Model, created by Tom Peters and Robert Waterman in 1981, is a tool used to analyze organizations. This model looks at the seven elements of an organization: strategy, structure, systems, shared values, skills, style and staff. This model is useful for understanding how the different parts of an organization interact and how changes in one area can affect the others.
Advantages of Change management model
Change management is an essential competence of organization for continuous improvement, allowing transformation of it into a learning organization. The advantages of a change management model include:
- Improved organizational efficiency and effectiveness: By introducing a change management model, organizations can ensure that change initiatives are managed in a systematic and consistent way. This helps to ensure that changes are implemented quickly and effectively, resulting in improved organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
- Enhanced communication: A change management model encourages effective communication between different stakeholders in the organization, including senior management, employees, and external partners. This helps to ensure that everyone is informed and aware of the changes being implemented, and that everyone has an opportunity to provide feedback and input.
- Improved decision-making: By introducing a change management model, organizations can improve the quality of their decision-making. This is because the model encourages the gathering of feedback and input from all stakeholders, and requires that decisions are made by considering all available evidence.
- Increased employee engagement: A change management model can help to improve employee engagement by ensuring that employees are involved in the decision-making process. This helps to foster a sense of ownership and responsibility, which can lead to increased motivation and engagement.
- Increased customer satisfaction: A change management model can also help to improve customer satisfaction by ensuring that changes are made with customer needs and preferences in mind. This helps to ensure that customers are offered a consistent, high-quality experience.
Limitations of Change management model
Change management is an essential competence of organization for continuous improvement, allowing transformation of it into a learning organization. However, there are several limitations to this model:
- Resistance to change: Change management requires people to adapt to new ways of working which can be difficult and can lead to resistance from employees.
- Organizational culture: Change management requires an organization to have a culture that encourages and supports change, which can be difficult to achieve.
- Lack of resources: Change management requires resources such as time, money, and staff, and these may not be readily available.
- Complexity of problems: Change management may not be suitable for addressing complex problems that require more than an organizational level solution.
- Lack of accountability: Change management requires someone to be held accountable for the results, and this may not be the case in some organizations.
Change management is an important competence of organization that allows it to become a learning organization. To support it, there are several other approaches related to the Change management model.
- Organizational Development – This approach is focused on processes, structures, and systems in order to improve organizational effectiveness. It includes techniques such as research, data collection, interviewing, action planning, and problem solving.
- Knowledge Management – This approach is focused on creating, organizing, sharing, and using knowledge within an organization. It includes techniques such as knowledge mapping, data mining, document management, and knowledge transfer.
- Innovation Management – This approach is focused on creating and managing innovative ideas and processes within an organization. It includes techniques such as brainstorming, idea sharing, prototyping, and process improvement.
- Quality Management – This approach is focused on ensuring that products and services meet the required quality standards. It includes techniques such as total quality management, six sigma, and customer satisfaction surveys.
- Leadership Development – This approach is focused on developing the leadership capabilities of an organization. It includes techniques such as mentorship, coaching, and training.
In summary, Change management is an essential competence of organization for continuous improvement, allowing transformation of it into a learning organization. There are several other approaches related to the Change management model, such as Organizational Development, Knowledge Management, Innovation Management, Quality Management, and Leadership Development. Each of these approaches has its own techniques and processes to support the Change management model and help organizations become more effective.
- Barnes, L. B. (1967). Organizational change and field experiment methods. Methods of organizational research, 57-111.
- Lewin, K. (1947). Group decision and social change. Readings in social psychology, 3, 197-211.
- Weick, K. E., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Organizational change and development. Annual review of psychology, 50(1), 361-386.